Acronyms and Abbreviations

AER Advanced Energy Revolution

CDM Clean Development Mechanism

GSP Concentrated Solar Power

DSM Demand Side Management

EJ ExaJoule

ER Energy Revolution

EREC European Renewable Energy Council

GDP Gross Domestic Product

GHG Greenhouse gas

GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (since 2010 GIZ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit)

GW GigaWatt

KWel Kilowatt electric

LCOE Levelised Cost of Electricity

Lge Litres of gasoline equivalent

LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas

Mtoe Millions of tons of oil Equivalent

NGCC Natural gas combined cycle

O&M Operation and maintenance

OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

ppm Parts per million

SNV Netherlands Development Organisation

T&D Transmission and distribution

Tpa Tonnes per annum

TWh TeraWatt Hour

UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Cover photos:

UN Photo/Sean Sprague © Solar voltaic panels in Thies, Senegal

UN Photo/Eskinder Debebe Middelgruden © Offshore Wind Farm

UN Photo © A large dam in rural area, topped by a walkway


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Unless expressly stated otherwise, the findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed herein are those of the various IRENA staff members, contributors, consultants and advisers to the IRENA Secretariat who prepared this working paper and do not necessarily represent the views of the Agency or its Members, the decision or the stated policy of IRENA, nor does citing of trade names or commercial processes constitute endorsement.