A Promising Future for Renewables

In contrast to 2004, the use of renewable energy technologies to provide electricity, heating and cooling, and transportation is now widely spread across the globe, and recent trends suggest sustained growth worldwide. A decade ago, renewables had a strong appeal to those who were interested in moving away from conventional fuels for environmental reasons. Today, renewables have demonstrated that, in addition to their environmental benefits, they are also economic drivers, creating jobs, helping to diversify revenue streams, and stimulating new technological developments.

The share of renewables in global electricity generation continues to increase while the share of nuclear power has been declining overthe past decade.34 The idea of achievingvery high shares of non-hydro renewable energy was quite radical 10 years ago, yet today it is considered feasible by many experts. Several local, regional, and national governments around the world have committed to 100% renewable energy in one or more sectors within the coming decades.

Nonetheless, the renewable energy sector still faces numerous challenges. Enormous subsidies for fossil fuels and nuclear power persist, and they continue to vastly outweigh financial ncentives for renewables. Many countries are directing ncreasing resources towards the exploration and extraction of unconventional fossil resources, while most governments remain reluctant to internalise the external costs associated with the extraction and use of fossil fuels.

Further advances and investment in renewable energy, as well as improvements in energy efficiency, must continue if the increase in global temperature is to be limited to 2°C. For this to happen, stable and predictable policy frameworks are key. Integrated policy approaches that incorporate energy efficiency—considered as the low-hanging fruit on the path to sustainability—will further facilitate the global transition to renewable energy.

The past decade has set the wheels in motion for this transition, but a concerted and sustained effort will be required to fully achieve it. With increasingly ambitious targets, innovative policies, and technological advances, renewables can continue to surpass expectations and foster a cleaner energy future.

TABLE R1. GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY CAPACITY AND BIOFUEL PRODUCTION, 2013

1 Estimates for 2013 do not include ground-source heat pumps in the geothermal direct use total. See Methodological Notes on page 142.

2 Solar collector capacity is for glazed and unglazed water systems only (not including air collectors, which account for another estimated 3.6 GWth total at end-2013). Additions are net; gross additions were estimated at 57 GWth. Note that past editions of this table have not considered unglazed water collectors.

Note: Numbers are rounded to nearest GW/GWth/billion litres, except for numbers <5, which are rounded to nearest decimal point; where totals do not add up, the difference is due to rounding. Rounding is to account for uncertainties and inconsistencies in available data. For more precise data, see Reference Tables R2-R10, Market and Industry Trends section and related endnotes.

Source: See Endnote 1 for this section.

TABLE R2. RENEWABLE ELECTRIC POWER GLOBAL CAPACITY, TOP REGIONS/COUNTRIES, 2013

Note: Global total reflects additional countries not shown. Table shows the top six countries by total renewable power capacity, not including hydropower; if hydro were included, countries and rankings would differ somewhat. Numbers are based on best data available at time of production. To account for uncertainties and inconsistencies in available data, numbers are rounded to the nearest 1 GW, with the exception of the following: global data for total renewable power capacity with and without hydropower are rounded to nearest 10 GW, totals below 20 GW are rounded to the nearest decimal point, and per capita numbers are rounded to the nearest 10 W. Where totals do not add up, the difference is due to rounding. Capacity amounts of <50 MW (including pilot projects) are designated by "~0." For more precise data, see Global Overview and Market and Industry Trends sections and related endnotes. Numbers should not be compared with prior versions of this table to obtain year-by-year increases, as some adjustments are due to improved or adjusted data rather than to actual capacity changes. Hydropower totals, and therefore the total world renewable capacity (and totals for some countries), do not include pure pumped storage capacity. Also note that the GSR 2013 reported a global total of 990 GW of hydropower capacity at the end of 2012; this figure has been revised downward, affecting also the global total for all renewables. Bio-power data reflect an effort to include only the organic component that is not incinerated. For more information see Methodological Notes on page 142.

Source: See Endnote 2 for this section.

TABLE R3. WOOD PELLETS GLOBAL TRADE, 2013

1 PrimarilyChina, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Source: See Endnote 3 for this section.

TABLE R4. BIOFUELS GLOBAL PRODUCTION, TOP 16 COUNTRIES AND EU-27, 2013

Note: All figures are rounded to the nearest 0.1 billion litres; comparison column notes "no change" if difference is less than 0.05 billion litres. Ethanol numbers are for fuel ethanol only. Table ranking is by total volumes of biofuel produced in 2013 (from preliminary data), and not by energy content. Where numbers do not add up, it is due to rounding.

Source: See Endnote 4 for this section.

TABLE R5. GEOTHERMAL POWER GLOBAL CAPACITY AND ADDITIONS, TOP 6 COUNTRIES, 2013

Source: See Endnote 5 for this section.

TABLE R6. HYDROPOWER GLOBAL CAPACITY AND ADDITIONS, TOP 6 COUNTRIES, 2013

Note: Capacity additions are rounded to the nearest 0.1 GW and totals are rounded to the nearest 1.0 GW. Data reflect a variety of sources, some of which differ quite significantly, reflecting variations in accounting and methodology. For more information and statistics, see Hydropower text and related endnotes in Markets and Industry Trends section and Methodological Notes on page 142.

Source: See Endnote 6 for this section.

TABLE R7. SOLAR PV GLOBAL CAPACITY AND ADDITIONS, TOP 10 COUNTRIES, 2013

Note: Countries are ordered according to total operating capacity at the end of 2013. Top countries for capacity added in 2013 were China, Japan, United States, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, India (added 1.1 GW for total of 2.3 GW), Romania (added 1.1 GW for total of 1.2 GW), Greece (added 1 GW for total of 2.6 GW), and Australia. The top 10 countries for total year-end 2012 capacity were Germany, Italy, United States, China, Japan, Spain, France, Belgium, Australia, and the Czech Republic (see GSR 2013, Reference Table R5). Country and Rest of World data are rounded to the nearest 0.1 GW; World totals are rounded to nearest 1 GW. Rounding is to account for uncertainties and inconsistencies in available data; where totals do not add up, the difference is due to rounding. Data for Japan and Spain are converted from data reported in direct current (DC). Data reflect a variety of sources, some of which differ quite significantly, reflecting variations in accounting or methodology. For more information, see Solar PV text and related endnotes in Market and Industry Trends section.

Source: See Endnote 7 for this section.

TABLE R8. CONCENTRATING SOLAR THERMAL POWER (CSP) GLOBAL CAPACITY AND ADDITIONS, 2013

Note: Table includes countries with operating commercial CSP capacity at end-2013. Several additional countries had small pilot plants in operation by year's end, including France (at least 0.75 MW), Germany (1.5 MW), Israel (6 MW), Italy (5 MW), and South Korea (0.2 MW). GSR 2013 also included 10 MW in Chile; this was removed because capacity is actually for process heat. National data are rounded to nearest MW, and world totals are rounded to nearest 5 MW. Rounding is to account for uncertainties and inconsistencies in available data; where totals do not add up, the difference is due to rounding.

Source: See Endnote 8 for this section.

TABLE R9. SOLAR WATER HEATING COLLECTORS GLOBAL CAPACITY AND ADDITIONS, TOP 12 COUNTRIES, 2012

Note: Countries are ordered according to total installed capacity. Data are for glazed and unglazed water collectors; air collectors add almost 1.7 GWth to the year-end world total. Additions represent gross capacity added; total numbers include allowances for retirements. Country and rest of world data are rounded to nearest 0.1 GWth; world totals are rounded to nearest 1 GWth, with the exception of added unglazed capacity. Where totals do not add up, the difference is due to rounding. Small amounts, on the order of a few MWth, are designated by"~0." By accepted convention, 1 million square metres = 0.7 GWth. The year 2012 is the most recent one for which firm global data and most country statistics are available. It is estimated, however, that 330 GWth of solar thermal capacity (including 325.9 GWth of water collectors and 3.6 GWth of air collectors) was in operation worldwide by the end of 2013. For 2013 details and source information, see Solar Thermal Heating and Cooling text and related endnotes in Market and Industry Trends section.

Source: See Endnote 9 for this section.

TABLE R10. WIND POWER GLOBAL CAPACITY AND ADDITIONS, TOP 10 COUNTRIES, 2013

1 For China, left-hand data are the amounts officially classified as connected to the grid and operational by year's end; right-hand data are total installed capacity. The world totals include the higher figures for China.

2 For Germany, left-hand data are grid-connected at year's end, and right-hand data are total installed capacity. Note that about 355 MW of capacity that was added offshore during the year was not connected to the grid by year's end; 236 MW of added capacity was for repowering.

Note: Countries are ordered according to total installed capacity at the end of 2013. Top countries for capacity added in 2013 were China, Germany, the United Kingdom, India, Canada, the United States, Brazil, Poland, Sweden, and Romania. The top 10 countries for total year-end 2012 capacity were the same with the exception of the 10th spot, which was held by Portugal. Country data are rounded to nearest 0.1 GW; Rest of World and World data are rounded to nearest GW. Rounding is to account for uncertainties and inconsistencies in available data; where totals do not add up, the difference is due to rounding or repowering/removal of existing projects. Data reflect a variety of sources, some of which differ quite significantly, reflecting variations in accounting or methodology. For more information, see Wind Power text and related endnotes in Market and Industry Trends section.

Source: See Endnote 10 for this section.

TABLE R11. GLOBAL TRENDS IN RENEWABLE ENERGY INVESTMENT, 2004-2013

Note: Data are based on the output of the Desktop database of Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF), unless otherwise noted, and reflect the timing of nvestment decisions. The following renewable energy projects are included: all biomass, geothermal, and wind generation projects of more than 1 MW; all hydro projects of between 1 and 50 MW; all solar power projects, with those less than 1 MW estimated separately and referred to as small distributed capacity; all ocean energy projects; and all biofuel projects with an annual production capacity of 1 million litres or more. Where totals do not add up, this is due to rounding. For more information about the categories in this table, see Sidebar 5 in GSR 2013.

Source: See Endnote 11 for this section.

TABLE R12. SHARE OF PRIMARY AND FINAL ENERGY FROM RENEWABLES, EXISTING IN 2011/2012 AND TARGETS

1 National share is for 2011/2012 unless otherwise noted.

2 Final energy targets for all EU-28 countries are set under EU Directive 2009/28/EC. The governments of Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Spain, and Sweden have set higher targets, which are shown here. The government of the Netherlands has reduced its more ambitious target to the level set in the EU Directive.

Note: Actual percentages are rounded to the nearest whole decimal for numbers over 10% except where associated targets are expressed differently. Some countries shown have other types of targets (see Tables R13, R14, and R15).

Source: See Endnote 12 for this section.

TABLE R13. SHARE OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM RENEWABLES, EXISTING IN 2012 AND TARGETS

1 National share is for 2012 unless otherwise noted. - 2 National target(s) exclude(s) large hydropower. - 3 Chile's target excludes hydropower plants over 40 MW. - 4 Denmark set a target of 50% electricity consumption supplied by wind power by 2020 in March 2012. - 5 Mali's target excludes large hydropower. - 6 Nigeria's target excludes hydropower plants over 30 MW. - 7 Russia's targets exclude hydropower plants over 25 MW. - 8 Thailand does not classify hydropower installations larger than 6 MW as renewable energy sources, so large-scale hydro >6 MW is excluded from national shares and targets. 9 India does not classify hydropower installations larger than 25 MW as renewable energy sources, so large-scale hydro >25 MW is excluded from national shares and targets.

TABLE R13 ANNEX. COUNTRIES WITHOUT TARGETS FOR SHARES OF ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION

Note: Unless otherwise noted, all targets and corresponding shares represent all renewables including hydropower. Actual percentages are rounded to the nearest whole decimal for numbers over 10% except where associated targets are expressed differently. A number of state/provincial and local jurisdictions have additional targets not listed here. The United States and Canada have de facto state and provincial-level targets through existing RPS policies, but no national targets (see Tables R17 and R19). Some countries shown have other types of targets (see Tables R12, R14, and R15). See Policy Landscape section (Section 4) and Reference Table R19 for more information about sub-national targets. Existing shares are ndicative and may need adjusting if more accurate national statistical data are published. Sources for reported data often do not specify the accounting method used, therefore shares of electricity are likely to include a mixture of different accounting methods and thus are not directly comparable or consistent across countries. Where shares sourced from Observ'ER differed from those provided to REN21 by country contributors, the latter were given preference.

Source: See Endnote 13 for this section.

TABLE R14. SHARE OF HEATING AND COOLING FROM MODERN RENEWABLE TECHNOLOGIES, EXISTING IN 2012 AND TARGETS

Note: Because heating and cooling targets are not standardised across countries, the table presents a variety of targets for the purpose of general comparison.

Source: See Endnote 14 for this section.

TABLE R15. OTHER RENEWABLE ENERGY TARGETS

1 India does not classify hydropower installations larger than 25 MW as renewable energy sources. Therefore, national targets and data for India do not include hydropower facilities >25 MW.

2 Pumped hydro plants are not energy sources but a means of energy storage. As such, they involve conversion losses and are powered by renewable or nonrenewable electricity. Pumped storage is included here because it can play an important role as balancing power, in particular for variable renewable resources.

3 It is not always possible to determine whether municipal solid waste (MSW) data include non-organic waste (plastics, metal, etc.) or only the organic biomass share. Uganda utilises predominantly organic waste.

Note: All capacity targets are for cumulative capacity unless otherwise noted. Targets are rounded to the nearest tenth decimal. Renewable energy targets are not standardised across countries; therefore, the table presents a variety of targets for the purpose of general comparison. Countries on this list may also have primary/final energy, electricity, or heating/cooling targets (see Tables R12, R13, and R14). Table R15 lists transport energy targets; biofuel blend mandates can be found in Table R18: National and State/Provincial Biofuel Blend Mandates. It is not always possible to determine whether transportation targets are limited to road transportation. Additionally, targets may cover only the use of biofuels or a wider array of renewable transport options (i.e., renewable electricity with electric vehicles, hydrogen).

Source: See Endnote 15 for this section.

TABLE R16. CUMULATIVE1 NUMBER OF COUNTRIES /STATES /PROVINCES ENACTING FEED-IN POLICIES

1 "Cumulative number" refers to number of jurisdictions that had enacted feed-in policies as of the given year.

2 The U.S. PURPA policy (1978) is an early version of the feed-in tariff, which has since evolved.

3 "Total existing" excludes seven countries that are known to have subsequently discontinued policies (Brazil, Czech Republic, Mauritius, Spain, South Africa, South Korea, and the United States) and adds seven countries that are believed to have feed-in tariffs but with an unknown year of enactment (Honduras, Maldives, Peru, Panama, Senegal, Tajikistan, and Uruguay).

Source: See Endnote 16 for this section.

TABLE R17. CUMULATIVE1 NUMBER OF COUNTRIES /STATES /PROVINCES ENACTING RPS/QUOTA POLICIES

1 "Cumulative number" refers to number of jurisdictions that had enacted RPS/Quota policies as of the given year. Jurisdictions are listed under year of first policy enactment. Many policies shown have been revised or renewed in subsequent years, and some policies shown may have been repealed or lapsed.

2 "Total existing" adds 20 jurisdictions believed to have RPS/Quota policies but whose year of enactment is not known (Ghana, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Malaysia, Palau, Portugal, Senegal, South Africa, Sri Lanka, United Arab Emirates, and the Indian states of Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal). In the United States, there are 10 additional states and territories with policy goals that are not legally binding RPS policies (Guam, Indiana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, U.S. Virgin Islands, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia). Three additional Canadian provinces also have non-binding policy goals (Alberta, Manitoba, and Quebec). The Italian RPS is being phased out according to new directives from the government, but it was still in place as of early 2013.

Source: See Endnote 17 for this section.

TABLE R18. NATIONAL AND STATE /PROVINCIAL BIOFUEL BLEND MANDATES

Note: The Philippines' B2 mandate is set to be raised to B5 following approval from the National Biofuels Board. Mexico has a pilot E2 mandate in the city of Guadalajara. The Dominican Republic has targets of B2 and E15 for 2015 but has no current blending mandate. Chile has targets of E5 and B5 but has no current blending mandate. Fiji approved voluntary B5 and E10 blending in 2011 with a mandate expected. The Kenyan city of Kisumu has an E10 mandate. Nigeria has a target of E10 but has no current blending mandate.

Table R18 lists only biofuel blend mandates; additional transport and biofuel targets can be found in Table R15: Other Renewable Energy Targets.

Source: See Endnote 18 for this section.

TABLE R19. CITY AND LOCAL RENEWABLE ENERGY POLICIES: SELECTED EXAMPLES

1 Targets for Hamburg, and Växjö include transport energy; targets for Fukushima Prefecture, Howrah, and Nagano Prefecture do not include transport energy, while other targets do not specify.

2 Howrah's target includes 5% reduction of projected energy consumption by energy efficiency measures.

Source: See Endnote 19 for this section.

TABLE R20. ELECTRICITY ACCESS BY REGION AND COUNTRY

Note: Rates and targets are national unless otherwise specified. For other targets that relate to off-grid and rural electrification, see Reference Table R15.

1 All data are for 2011 with the exception of China, Ghana, and South Africa, which reflect 2013 data.

2 Developing Asia is divided as follows: China and East Asia includes Brunei, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor Leste, Vietnam, and other Asian countries; South Asia includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

3 For the Federated States of Micronesia, rural electrification rate is defined by electrification of all islands outside of the four that host the state capital (which is considered urban).

4 The Palestinian Territories' rate is defined by number of villages connected to the national electricity grid.

Source: See Endnote 20 for this section.

TABLE R21. POPULATION RELYING ON TRADITIONAL BIOMASS FOR COOKING

1 Developing Asia is divided as follows: China and East Asia includes Brunei, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor Leste, Vietnam, and other Asian countries; South Asia includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

2 Includes countries in the OECD and Eastern Europe/Eurasia.

Source: See Endnote 21 for this section.

TABLE R22. PROGRAMMES FURTHERING ENERGY ACCESS: SELECTED EXAMPLES

TABLE R23. NETWORKS FURTHERING ENERGY ACCESS: SELECTED EXAMPLES

34 Bernard Chabot, "Analysis of the 2003-2012 Global Electricity Production with a Focus on the Contribution from Renewables," Renewables International, December 2013, http://cf01.erneuerbareenergien.schluetersche.de/files/smfiledata/3/3/5/2/4/1/49WorldElecRE0312.pdf; World Energy Council, World Energy Perspective: Nuclear Energy One Year After Fukushima (London: 2012), http://www.worldenergy.org/documents/world_energy_perspective__nuclear_energy_one_year_after_fukushima_world_energy_council_march_2012_1.pdf.