2.1 Road transport energy consumption

Land transport energy consumption is dominated by road transport, which accounts for 76% of energy consumed and is the focus of this report. Oil products dominate the road transport sector, although their share has fallen from 99% in 2000 to 95% in 2010. In 2000, 59 EJ of oil was consumed for road transport globally, compared to 0.4 EJ of biofuels and biogas, 0.1 EJ of natural gas and virtually no electricity.

By 2010, oil consumption globally for road transport had grown to 70 EJ, but biofuels had risen almost sixfold to 2.4 EJ and accounted for 3.3% of road transport energy consumption. Natural gas consumption grew sevenfold between 2000 and 2010 to reach 0.9 EJ in 2010. Electricity consumption for road transport actually fell between 2000 and 2010 (IEA, 2013a).

Figure 2.1: Transport energy consumption by sector, 2000 to 2010

Source: IEA, 2013a.

Figure 2.2: Energy consumption for road transport by fuel, 2000 to 2010

Source: IEA, 2013a.

Figure 2.3: Biofuel consumption for transport by fuel, 2000 to 2010

Source: IEA, 2013a.

Figure 2.4. Global ethanol production by country and region, 2007 to 2012

Note: Data for 2013 are projections of full year output. One billion litres of ethanol contains around 21 PJ of energy. Sources: F.O. Licht and Renewable Fuels Association, 2013.

Total consumption of biofuels – ethanol, biodiesel, other liquid biofuels and biogas – for road transport grew from around 417 PJ (0.42 EJ) in 2000 to 2 410 PJ (2.41 EJ) in 2010.9 Ethanol consumption grew from 272 PJ in 2000 to 1 426 PJ in 2010, a growth rate of 18% per year. Bio-diesel growth was even more impressive, from just 18 PJ in 2000 to 616 PJ in 2010, a rate of 42% per year. Other liquid biofuels also increased, but at a more modest rate of 11% per year from 126 PJ in 2000 to 368 PJ in 2010 (Figure 2.3).

Recent data for biofuels production suggest that consumption may have increased slightly from 2010 levels, given that production has grown from 1.83 million barrels per day (mb/d) in 2010 to 1.87 mb/d in 2011 and 2012. The outlook for 2013 is for total liquid biofuels production to grow to 2.02 mb/d (IEA, 2013b).

9 The different types of biofuels are defined in Section One.