Renewable energy targets take many forms. Although the majority continue to focus on the electricity sector, targets for renewable heating and cooling and for transport are becoming increasingly important tools for policymakers. (See later sections on Heating and Cooling, and Transportation.) Other forms of targets include renewable shares of primary and final energy as well as capacities of specific renewable technologies or their energy output. Targets most often focus on a specific future year, but some are set for a range of years or with no year reported. In addition, targets for expanding energy access, although not direct renewable energy targets, are increasingly specifying the use of renewable sources. (See Section 5 on Distributed Renewable Energy in Developing Countries.)
At least 12 countries had historical targets aimed at the year 2013. Algeria installed 10 MW of wind in 2013 to meet its targeted capacity of 10 MW, and China met its goal to add 49 GW of renewable capacity in 2013.3 However, eight countries failed to meet their targets by year's end. For example, in early 2014, India was short of its targeted 4,325 MW of additional renewable power capacity in fiscal year 2013-14.ii 4 Both Tonga and Fiji failed to meet goals for 100% of final energy from renewables; subsequently, Fiji reduced its targets to 100% of electricity and 23% of final energy from renewable sources by 2030.5 France fell short of its goal of adding 1,000 MW of solar poweriii; Nepal failed to meet its goal of 1 MW of installed wind capacity; St. Lucia failed to meet its target of 5% renewable electricity; South Africa did not meet its goal to generate 10,000 GWh of renewable electricity in 2013; and South Korea ended the year short of its goal to add 100 MW of wind power during 2013.6
As of early 2014, data were not yet available to determine whether several other targets were achieved, including: Algeria (cumulative 25 MW of solar PV, 25 MW of CSP); Cote d'lvoire (3% of primary energy); Nepal (cumulative 3 MW of solar, 15 MW of micro hydro); Peru (5% of electricity demand from hydropower projects smaller than 20 MW each).7
New policy targets were introduced by at least six countries in 2013. Azerbaijan approved a target for renewables to account for 9.7% of total primary energy and 20% of electricity by 2020; Bhutan set a target of 20 MW of renewable power capacity by 2025; and Kazakhstan targeted a 1% share of electricity from renewables by 2014 and a 3% share by 2020.8 Kenya enacted a plan to expand total electric capacity by 5,000 MW by 2016, up from 1,660 MW in late 2013, including 794 MW of hydropower capacity, 1,887 MWofgeothermal, 635 MWofwind, and 423 MW of solar PV.9 Qatar set a goal of generating 2% of its electricity from renewables by 2020, and Russia targeted roughly 6 GW of solar, wind, and small-scale hydropower capacity by 2020.10
i - The estimate of 15 countries in 2005 was based on the best information available to REN21 at the time. As of early 2014, there were 138 developing and emerging economies, defined as countries in the low-income, lower-middle income, and upper-middle income classifications of the World Bank Country and Lending Groups, out of a total of 188 countries overall (per World Bank).
ii - India does not classify hydropower installations larger than 25 MW as renewable energy sources. Therefore, throughout the Policy Landscape section, national targets and data for India do not include hydro facilities greater than 25 MW. The Indian government's fiscal year runs from 1 April through 31 March.
iii - Throughout the Policy Landscape section, the term "solar power" refers to solar PV and/or CSP.
A number of countries revised existing targets for renewable power capacity and generation during the year, with most targets increasing. As of January 2014, China adopted a range of targets to be met by 2015, including 18 GW of wind and 35 GW of cumulative solar PV capacity (up from the previous 20 GW target), including 20 GW of distributed solar PV.11 China also set a target toachieve 200 MWofwind installed by 2020.12 India announced plans to more than double its renewable capacity, from 25 GW in 2012 to 55 GW by 2017.13 Thailand increased its existing long-term targets for electricity from solid biomass, agricultural waste-to-energy, solar, and wind power, and raised its overall target for renewable shares of final energy consumption to 25% by 2021.14 In the near term, Thailand plans to add 1 GW of solar PV by the end of 2014.15 Vanuatu added to its existing goal of 23% renewable electricity by end-2014 by establishing targets to achieve a 40% share by 2015, and 65% by 2020.16
In Europe, Portugal enacted a number of technology-specific targets for cumulative electric capacity by 2020, including769 MW of bio-power from solid biomass; 59 MW of biogas power; 29 MW of geothermal power; 400 MW of small-scale hydropower; 6 MW of wave energy; 670 MW of solar PV; 50 MW of CSP; 5,273 MW of onshore wind power; and 27 MW of offshore wind power.17 The United Kingdom set a target to deploy 39 GW of offshore wind capacity by 2030.18 Germany, however, lowered its offshore wind targets from 10 GWto 6.5 GW by 2020, and from 25 GW to 15 GW by 2030.19
In the MENA region, Egypt adopted a new five-year plan that calls for the addition of 700 MW of solar PV and 2,800 MW of CSP by 2017; Libya increased its existing 2020 target for renewable electricity from 7% to 20%; and Saudi Arabia set a near-term goal of 6 GW of solar PV by 2020 as a step towards its existing 2032 goal of 16 GW.20 In Latin America, Chile doubled its existing target, calling for a 20% renewables share of electricity by 2025, and Uruguay set a new higher target to generate 90% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2015.21
On the regional level, the Caribbean Community (CARICOMi) Secretariat adopted a trans-national target on behalf of its 15 member states, calling for a regional renewable electricity share of 20% by 2017, 28% by 2022, and 47% by 2027.22 The shares are to be achieved by country-differentiated targets that were yet to be defined as of early 2014. The EU and the ECOWAS region of West Africa also have trans-national targets in place. At the sub-national level, the U.S. state of California set new standards requiring the deployment of an additional 600 MW of renewable capacity beyond the 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) goal to make it possible for small consumers to purchase up to 100% renewable electricity from their utilities.23 Also in the United States, Massachusetts raised its 2020 solar PV capacity target to 1.6 GW after achieving its goal of 250 MW four years early, and Minnesota set a goal for solar power to generate 10% of the state's electricity by 2030.24
3 World Wind Energy Association (WWEA), World Wind Energy Report 2013 (Bonn: 2014); Algerian Ministry of Energy and Mines, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program (Algiers: March 2011), http://www.mem-algeria.org/francais/uploads/enr/Programme_ENR_et_efficacite_energetique_en.pdf; China's 49 GW target includes installations of a number of different renewable energy sources (final installed capacity by technology can be found in the corresponding technology sections of the report), per "Asia Report: Reacting to China's Goal of 49 GW of Renewables in 2013," Renewable Energy World, 22 January 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/01/asia-report-reacting-to-chinas-goal-of-49-gw-of-renewables-in-2013; Jennifer Dugan, "China Sets New World Record for Solar Installations," The Guardian, 30 January 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/environment/chinas-choice/2014/jan/30/china-record-solar-energy.
4 India had installed only 2,110 MW as of January 2014, per Government of India, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), "Physical Progress (Achievements)," http://www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/
5 Economic Consultant Associates, Review of the Fiji National Energy Policy July 2013, http://www.fdoe.gov.fj/images/NEP2013/draft%20national%20energy%20policy%202013.pdf.
6 France installed 613 MW of solar PV and no CSP in 2013, per IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (IEA-PVPS), PVPS Report—Snapshot of Global PV 1992-2013: Preliminary Trends Information from the IEA PVPS Programme (Brussels: March 2014); Nepal from WWEA, op cit.note 3; South Africa from Wim Jonker Klunne, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), personal communication with REN21, 26 January 2014; South Korea installed 79 MW of wind power in 2013, per Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), Global Wind Statistics 2013 (Brussels: 5 February 2014).
7 REN21, Renewables 2013 Global Status Report (Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2013), http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/01/france-doubles-solar-energy-target-seeks-to-promote-european-equipment.
8 Vladislav Vorotnikov, "Azerbaijan Aims to Boost Output of Renewable Energy," Renewable Energy World, 1 August 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/08/azerbaijan-aims-to-boost-output-of-renewable-energy?cmpid=WNL-Friday-August2-2013; Royal Government of Bhutan, Alternative Renewable Energy Policy 2013 (Thimpu, Bhutan: 2013), http://www.moea.gov.bt/documents/files/pub0ip10496bv.pdf; Kazakhstan from Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF), Energy Week in Review, 23-29 July 2013.
9 Kenya Ministry of Energyand Petroleum, National Energy Policy November 2013 Draft (Nairobi: November 2013), http://www.kengen.co.ke/documents/National%20Energy%20Policy%20-%20Final%20Draft%20-%2014%20Nov%202013.pdf; Dennis Kibira, African Solar Designs, personal communication with REN21, 4 December 2013.
10 Qatar Ministryof Energy& Industry, "Qatar Launches Project to Produce Electricity from Solar in Parallel with the COP18" (Doha: 2012), http://www.mei.gov.qa/search-results-en/?Search=renewable#news-en/Qatar-launches-project-to-produce-electricity-from-solar-in-parallel-with-the-COP18/67/; Russia from BNEF, Energy Week in Review, 1-6 May 2013.
11 Michelle Yun, "GCL-Poly Drops After China Sets Solar Target: Hong Kong Mover," Bloomberg, 27 January 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-01-27/gcl-poly-drops-after-china-sets-solar-target-hong-kong-mover.html; "China to Boost Renewable Energy to Curb Air Pollution, CCTV Says," Bloomberg, 15 January 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-01-15/china-to-boost-renewable-energy-to-curb-air-pollution-cctv-says.html; Frank Haugwitz and Rolf Hug,"China became the world's largest solar PV market in Q3; nation is poised to additional multi-GW deployment," SolarServer, undated, http://www.solarserver.com/solar-magazine/solar-report/solar-report/china-became-the-worlds-largest-solar-pv-market-in-q3-nation-is-poised-to-additional-multi-gw-deployment.html; Feifei Shen, "China Confirms Goal for 35 GW of Solar Capacity by 2015," Renewable Energy World, 15 July 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/07/china-confirms-goal-for-35-gw-of-solar-capacity-by-2015?cmpid=SolarNL-Tuesday-Julyl6-2013; John Parnell, "China Extends Distributed Solar Target to 2015," PV Tech, 21 October 2013, http://www.pv-tech.org/news/china_extends_distributed_solar_target_to_20gw_by_2015.
12 GWEC, Global Wind Report: Annual Market Update 2013 (Brussels: 2014).
13 Jeff Postelwait, "India's Prime Minister Vows to Double Renewable Energy Capacity," Renewable Energy World, 18 August 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/04/indias-pm-vows-to-double-renewable-energy-capacity?cmpid=WNL-Friday-Aprill9-2013.
14 BNEF, Energy Weekin Review, 23-29 July 2013; Paul Gipe, "Thailand Adding 1,000 MW of Solarwith New Feed-in Tariffs," Wind Works, 18 July 2013, http://www.wind-works.org/cms/index.php?id=39&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=2534&cHash=d5ffa689dlbd548eb94f81d3838843a7
15 Max Hall, "Thai FITsforfurther 1 GW of solar," PV Magazine, 19 July 2013, http://www.pv-magazine.com/news/details/beitrag/thai-fits-for-further-1-gw-of-solar_100012097/#axzz2rDDAHCB5.
16 Vanuata National Energy Roadmap 2013-2020, March 2013, http://www.kuthenergy.com/assets/Vanuatu_National_Energy_Roadmap.pdf.
17 Lara Ferreira, Portuguese Renewable Energy Association (ARPEN), personal communication with REN21, 2 December 2013.
18 David Appleyard, "UKConfirmsPlansfor39GW of Offshore Wind by 2030," Renewable Energy World, 8 November 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/11/uk-confirms-plans-for-39-gw-of-offshore-wind-by-2030?cmpid=WNL-Wednesday-Novemberl3-2013.
19 Martha Ekkert, Federal Ministryforthe Environment, Nature Protection and NuclearSafety(BMU), personal communication with REN21, 27 January 2014; "Germans Cut Offshore Wind Goal," reNews.com, 11 November 2013, http://renews.biz/53795/germans-cut-offshore-wind-goal/; Steve Sawyer, GWEC, cited in James Montgomery, "Wind Energy 2014 Outlook: Major Markets Recover, Battling Policy and Grid Concerns," Renewable Energy World Magazine, January-February 2014, p.30.
20 Egypt from GTM Research, PV News, November2013; Barbara Lewis, "Libya aims to get a bout fifth of power from solar by 2020," Reuters, 11 April 2013, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/04/11/eu-libya-idUSL5N0CY2MZ20130411;lan Clover, "Desert Solar conference instills Saudi confidence," PV Magazine, 15 November 2013, http://www.pv-magazine.com/news/details/beitrag/desert-solar-conference-instills-saudi-confidence_100013454/#axzz2nN7pXCI9.
21 Chile from Jenny Muirhead, "Weekly Intelligence Brief: October 14-21," CSP Today, 21 October 2013, http://social.csptoday.com/print/29790?utm_source=http%3A%2F%2Fuk.csptoday.com%2Ffc_csp_pvlz%2F&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=CSP%20ebrief%2021-10-13%20en&utm_term=Who%20are%20the%20leading%20CSP%20 companies%20in%202013%3F&utm_content=125566; Clean Technica, "90% Renewable Electricity by 2015 Is Uruguay's Goal," http://cleantechnica.com/2013/01/08/90-renewable-electricity-by-2015-is-uruguays-goal/
22 CARICOM, "Targets approved for renewable energy development and energy efficiency improvement in CARICOM," press release (Georgetown, Guyana: 6 March 2013), http://www.caricom.org/jsp/pressreleases/press_releases_2013/pres50_13.jsp.
23 Michael Puttre, "California's New 600 MW Renewables Law Targets Distributed Solar, Low-Income Areas," Solar Industry, 10 October 2013, http://www.solarindustrymag.com/e107_plugins/content/content.php?content.13321; Jeff Postelwait, "California Energy Bill Passes, Awaits Gov. Brown's Signature," Renewable Energy World, 12 September 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/09/california-energy-bill-passes-awaits-gov-browns-signature?cmpid=WNL-Friday-Septemberl3-2013; California Senate, "Groundbreaking New California Law Will Provide Renewable Energy to Renters, Small Business," 30 September 2013, http://sd03.senate.ca.gov/news/2013-09-30-groundbreaking-new-california-law-will-provide-renewable-energy-renters-small-busine.
24 Governor of Massachusetts, "Patrick-Murphy Administration Reaches 2017 Solar Energy Targets, Sets New Goal," press release (Boston: 1 May 2013), http://www.mass.gov/governor/pressoffice/pressreleases/2013/0501-solar-power-goal-reached.html; C2ES, "Minnesota Passes 'Omnibus Energy Bill' Including 1.5 Percent Solar Requirement," 2013, http://www.c2es.org/us-states-regions/news/2013/minnesota-passes-omnibus-energy-bill-including-15-percent-solar-requirem.