City and Local Government Policies

Thousands of cities and towns have active policies, plans, and targets to advance renewable energy. Policy momentum continued in 2013 as city and local governments acted to reduce emissions, support and create local industry, reduce energy demand through efficiency improvements, relieve grid capacity stress, achieve security of supply and independence from the national grid, and become more resilient to climate change. local governments made increasing use of their authority to regulate; make expenditure and procurement decisions; facilitate and ease the financing of renewable energy projects; and influence advocacy and information sharing. (See Reference Table R19.) Increased co-ordination among local, state, and national governments is opening the door for municipalities to further accelerate the uptake of renewable energy and stimulate rapid market transformation.146

Local government actions often complement, and in many cases go beyond, state and national policies. By the end of 2013, 36 Indian cities had finalised solar city master plans in response to the National Solar Cities Programme, which will support a total of 60 cities development as green cities.147 In Denmark, to help meet parallel national targets, Copenhagen is working towards the goal of 100% renewable power, heating, and cooling by 2035, and 100% renewable energy in all sectors by 2050, while Frederikshavn aims for 100% renewable energy by 2015.148 Several U.S. cities including Greensburg (Kansas), Austin (Texas), and San Francisco (California) have implemented sector-specific 100% renewable energy targets and policies that go beyond state and national targets.149

In turn, national governments often observe sub-national level actions and consider using successful programmes as blueprints for national policies.150 China, for example, is experimenting with carbon trading mechanisms on the local level before potentially launching a nationwide scheme: five cities and two provinces are testing cap-and-trade mechanisms to reduce pollution and stimulate investment in low-carbon energy.151 Local and/ or community-owned energy projects have supported a rapid increase of renewable capacity in Europe, by mobilising private investment and tackling the NIMBY (Not in My Back Yard) opposition by turning it into YIMFY (Yes in My Front Yard).152 In turn, many national and sub-national authorities across Europe are advancing incentives for community energy projects to reach their targets. Scotland, for example, set a target of 500 MW for community- and locally owned renewable capacity in 2013, and the U.K. launched a fund to support urban community energy projects.153

As cities have become increasingly important for achieving national goals, their participation in the design and development of "vertically integrated" state and national policies has grown. In this way, cities are exploring how to tap into new climate financing mechanisms for emerging economies and developing countries, such as Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs).154 In South Africa, cities are engaging with the national government to help achieve the national greenhouse gas emissions reduction target of 34% by 2020 through the use of renewables in buildings.155 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) has advanced its Low Carbon Model Town project using Yujiapu (China), Samui Island (Thailand), and Da Nang (Vietnam) as the first three case studies.156 In 2013, eight "model cities"— in Brazil, India, South Africa, and Indonesia—began formulating low-emissions development strategies, which includes the use of renewables, using a common methodology developed by ICLEI for local governments.157

Local governments around the world continue to establish new climate and energy plans and targets, and to revise existing ones. In 2013, Sydney, Australia, set the goal to achieve 100% renewable energy for power, heating, and cooling by 2030, and Yamanashi, Japan, targeted local generation of 100% renewable electricity by 2050. They joined over 41 cities that have already achieved 100% renewable energy in at least one sector or aim to do so over the next few decades.158 London, U.K., began developing a plan in 2013 to assess the city's energy delivery infrastructure, including the improvements required to enable the feed in of surplus renewable electricity to the grid.159 By year's end, cities from across Europe had submitted 734 Sustainable Energy Action Plans under the EU Covenant of Mayors, bringing to 3,333 the number of European local governments with action plans, all aiming to reduce emissions by at least 20-40% by 2020 through the use of energy efficiency and renewables.160

In the United States, more than 50 local governments— including Washington (D.C.), Des Moines (Iowa), and Santa Barbara County (California)—released a plan to enhance communities' resilience to climate change through steps that include increasing use of renewable energy and energy efficiency in buildings and other infrastructure.161 Also in 2013, Asheville, North Carolina, voted unanimously to phase out the use of coal-fired power and to move to renewable energy.162

Municipally controlled or -owned utilities allow local governments and citizens to play a greater role in planning and deploying renewable energy, and enable local governments to directly advance targets, incentives, and policies that encourage private or community investment in renewables. In 2013, Hamburg, Germany, held a public referendum that determined that the city council should re-acquire a controlling stake in the local electric power grid, with the aim of deploying affordable renewable energy and avoiding high network charges.163 At least 190 German communities have bought back their local grids since 2005.164 In the United States, Boulder, Colorado, formed a municipal utility to reduce electric rates while increasing the share of renewables, thereby joining more than 1,000 U.S. communities with municipally owned utilities that collectively serve 50 million U.S. customers.165

U.S. cities with already-established locally owned utilities continued to adopt or revise feed-in tariffs to reach existing renewable electricity targets and complement state-level renewable portfolio standards. As part of its strategy to move away from coal-fired power, Los Angeles is deploying 350 MW of solar power capacity through a combination of a FIT and a request for proposals that was launched in 2013.166 Palo Alto, California, reduced its FIT programme size, but raised its tariff for solar PV by more than 15%, and implemented a plan to supply carbon-neutral electricity for all customers starting in 2013.167 Fort Collins, Colorado, launched a solar FIT for commercial customers.168

Japanese cities have started to set up community-owned electric utilities through public-private partnerships to advance renewables. In 2012, Shizuoka created a local electric utility that launched renewable community power projects in 2013 through a micro-citizens fund of around USD 200,000 (JPY 20 million) with 204 community investors. Similarly, Odawara created a local utility that became operational in 2013, and Fukushima launched a fund in early 2014 to support local renewable electricity projects.169

Several cities without municipal utilities work with state and national governments to advance regulatory frameworks to enable the procurement of bulk purchases of renewable electricity by local residents and businesses through the existing transmission and distribution system. Sydney, Australia, released 15 recommendations for regulatory reform to enable the sharing of excess renewable energy (both electricity and thermal energy) amongst city buildings.170 In the United States, six states had legislated Community Choice Aggregationi (CCA) policies by late 2013.171 Chicago adopted CCA in late 2012, and by 2013 it had aggregated nearly 1 million energy customers for its no nuclear/no coal contract, reducing its expected CO2 emissions by 16% that year.172 At least four other U.S. cities switched to CCA in 2013, and more than 30 cities initiated the process.173 In India, Gandhinagar initiated a 5 MW rooftop solar PV programme based on a state FIT, and, as of early 2014, Bhavnagar, Mehsana, Rajkot, Surat, and Vadodara were awaiting approval for tenders totalling 25 MW each of rooftop solar PV.174 Port Elizabeth became the first municipality in South Africa to adopt net metering for local small-scale renewable systems.175

Other cities are leading by example, setting targets to power their municipal operations or deploying renewable installations on their own buildings. In 2013, Guntur and Sriperumpudur in India installed renewable energy systems to help meet their targets to reduce fossil fuel consumption, and Aurangabad established targets to do the same.176 In the United States, Kansas City, Missouri, signed a deal to install solar PV panels on 80 city buildings for their own use; Yolo County, California, generated 13.5 million kWh (152% of its electricity demand) using on-site solar PV; and Austin, Texas, achieved its own-use target, purchasing renewable energy credits to power city facilities with 100% renewable electricity.177 Sydney is installing the largest building-mounted solar PV system (1.25 MW) in Australia on municipal buildings, a step that is expected to reduce annual carbon emissions by up to 2,250 tonnes; and the town of Palmerston North in New Zealand began constructing a 100 kW solar PV system, the largest in the country, on its administration building to generate 10% of its power demand.178 Ameland in the Netherlands launched a local smart grid that relies on micro-CHP fuel cells; the fuel cells, which began to come on line in late 2013, can be modulated to meet peak loads and balance variable wind and solar generation.179

In the building sector, local governments and communities continued to set low or zero-energy or -carbon emission targets, reform building codes, and revise permitting and land-use policies to incorporate renewable energy requirements. Shanghai, China, is piloting green energy policies and business models for near-zero emission buildings as part of its low-carbon development plan.180 In Jakarta, Indonesia, a new green building code became mandatory in early 2013.181 Bhubaneswar, India, amended its planning and building standards, making it compulsory for large buildings to install rooftop solar PV.182 The city alsojoined Bangalore, Pune, and Hyderabad in adopting the national rating system for green buildings in urban regulations.183 In the United States during 2013, Lancaster and Sebastopol in California passed zoning ordinances requiring at least 1-1.5 kW of solar PV to be installed on all new buildings on lots above a specified minimum size.184 Under the European Commission's POLIS research programme, six European cities have developed guidelines for maximising the potential of solar energy in urban buildings.184

To reduce upfront investment costs of renewable energy systems, many cities are facilitating property owners' access to low-cost, long-term financing and/or using city billing systems. Cape Town, South Africa, launched a residential solar water heater (SWH) programme through which accredited suppliers can partner with financial institutions to offer loans to residents for newly installed systems.186 Ontario became the third Canadian jurisdiction, after Yukon and Nova Scotia, to authorise using a local improvement charge (LIC) financing tool whereby cities offer low-interest financing to property owners for energy efficiency upgrades or renewable energy installations, and loans are repaid through additional charges on property tax bills.187 Toronto, Ontario, approved a pilot programme in 2013 to install renewable systems in 1,000 single-family homes and 10 multi-residential buildings, and to finance them through LIC.188 Several U.S. states have adopted the Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) programme, with Texas being the newest member, and many cities around the country were participating as of 2013.i 189 Several cities around the world continued to launch programmes in 2013 to move from electricity to solar energy for water heating in buildings. Santa Fe, Argentina, mandated SWH systems in all municipal childcare centres, resulting in installations at 34 refurbished nurseries in 2013.190 Cape Town, South Africa, made SWHs more available to mid- to high-income households through monthly repayment rates that are below the cost of electricity saved through the installation. By the end of 2013, this programme had avoided 100,000 GWh of electricity consumption. Cape Town targets the installation of 60,000-150,000 high-pressure SWH systems over a five-year period.191To help achieve its CO2 reduction targets, Halifax, Canada, launched a programme to provide up to 1,000 "turnkey" SWH systems per year.192 In India, spurred on by state incentives, at least 90 cities in 8 states had amended their building by-laws to mandate SWH as of 2013.193

i - CCAs allow a city or a consortium of towns and cities to aggregate the electricity loads of residents, businesses, and municipal facilities and to negotiate electric supply contracts on their behalf.

As local governments transform their buildings, they also seek to use renewable energy for space and industrial heating and/ or cooling purposes. District heating and cooling are becoming best practice for the integration of renewable energy in cities. Many cities are advancing local district heating and cooling with renewables in heat-only or combined heat and power (CHP) configurations. In 2013, Sydney launched a plan to achieve its 100% renewable energy target (for electricity, heating, and cooling) with solar and wind power accounting for 30%; for the remainder, the city will use co- and tri-generationii gas engines at the building or city-block level (as is the case in Gussing, Austria; Gothenburg, Sweden; and most Danish cities), to be fuelled initially by natural gas but then progressively by syngas and biogas from biomass.194

An increasing number of cities is transitioning towards more sustainable transport systems by promoting the use of electric or plug-in vehicles powered by renewable energy, or by using biofuels in public transport systems. In 2013, Indianapolis, in the U.S. state of Indiana, mandated that all new vehicles purchased for its municipal fleets be EV or plug-in hybrids, and New York City required the use of at least B5 in all 6,000 diesel-fuelled city vehicles.195 Bogota, Colombia, implemented a pilot project consisting of 50 EV taxis and introduced hybrid buses as part of its mass transportation system (200 units planned for 2014).196 São Paulo launched Brazil's first battery-electric bus, and Lublin, Poland, launched solar-powered buses in 2013.197 Kapiti, New Zealand, began operating the first electric rubbish collection truck in the southern hemisphere; Johannesburg, South Africa, announced plans to purchase some 175 new buses to be fuelled by biogas and biodiesel; and London, U.K., announced plans to fuel city buses with biodiesel processed from used cooking oil.198

Cities are also adopting regulations and legislation to advance the infrastructure that will be needed to support electric-powered transport systems. For example, Palo Alto, California, revised its building codes in 2013 to require that all new homes be pre-wired for EV charging, and New York City amended its zoning and building code to mandate that all new public parking spaces be wired for EVs.199

As cities seek to share and scale up best practices, highlight their commitments to renewable energy, and account for their achievements, local governments are increasingly prioritising systematic measurement and reporting of climate and energy data. By the end of 2013, the carbonn Cities Climate Registry (cCCR) had 836 registered energy and climate commitments in 414 cities in over 45 countries, amounting to 4,208 reported mitigation and adaption actions (double the 2012 number).200 As of early 2014, ICLEI, C40, the World Resources Institute, and the Joint Work Programme of the Cities Alliance among the World Bank Group, UN-HABITAT, and UNEP worked together to pilot the Global Protocol for Community-scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC) in 35 global cities.201 C40 announced a new partnership with Siemens to help cities measure, plan, and mitigate their greenhouse gas emissions, and C40 and the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) announced a joint programme to increase the number of cities that report annually on climate actions and to standardise emissions accounting, enabling cities to track their progress and identify effective climate and energy actions.202

The year 2013 also saw the consolidation and strengthening of city participation in the formal international climate negotiations. The first-ever "Cities Day" was held during the high-level segment in the UNFCCC 19th Conference of Parties (COP19), bringing national ministers and city mayors together to strengthen multi-level governance on climate change.203

i - Similar to LIC, PACE financing allows property owners to borrow money from a local government to pay for renewable energy systems and/or energy efficiency improvements. The amount borrowed is typically repaid via a special assessment on property taxes, or another locally collected tax or bill, such as a utility bill.

ii - Tri-generation (or combined cooling, heat, and power, CCHP) adds an extra service to CHP, whereby the thermal energy is converted to chilled water for air conditioning and/or refrigeration, which further displaces electricity used for these services. Cooling can be delivered via central thermal chiller stations combined with district cooling pipes, or via hot water pipes to decentralised thermal chillers in individual buildings.

TABLE 3. RENEWABLE ENERGY SUPPORT POLICIES

1 Spain removed FIT support for new projects in 2012. Incentives for projects that had previously qualified for FIT support continue to be revised.

2 Ecuador's FIT that expired in 2012 was re-launched in 2013.

3 The area of the Palestinian Territories is included in the World Bank country classification as "West Bank and Gaza."

They have been placed in the table using the 2009 "Occupied Palestinian Territory" GNI per capita provided by the United Nations (USD 1,483).

Note: Countries are organised according to annual GNI per capita levels as follows: "high" is USD 12,616 or more, "upper-middle" is USD 4,086 to USD 12,615, "lower-middle" is USD 1,036 to USD 4,085, and "low" is USD 1,035 or less. Per capita income levels and group classifications from World Bank, 2014. Only enacted policies are included in the table; however, for some policies shown, implementing regulations may not yet be developed or effective, leading to lack of implementation or impacts. Policies known to be discontinued in 2013 are marked with an X; historic discontinuations have been omitted from the table.. Many feed-in policies are limited in scope of technology. In cases where a national and sub-national policy exist within the same policy category, the national policy is displayed.

Source: See Endnote 1 for this section.

146 For example, see Philipp Schonberger, Municipalities as Key Actors of German Renewable Energy Governance: An Analysis of Opportunities, Obstacles, and Multi-Level Influences, Wuppertal Paper No.186 (Wuppertal, Germany: January 2013), http://epub.wupperinst.org/frontdoor/index/index/docld/4676; Gino Van Begin, "Look to cities for real climate action!" Outreach Magazine, http://www.stakeholderforum.org/sf/outreach/index.php/previous-editions/cop-19/198-cop-19-day-9-cities-urban-governance-and-transport/11626-look-to-cities-for-real-climate-action; World Future Council, "Going Global with 100% Renewable Energy," October 2013, http://power-to-the-people.net/2013/10/going-global-with-100-renewable-energy/

147 Kuna, "India to develop 60 Solar Cities," https://www.kuna.net.kw/ArticleDetails.aspx?id=2350114&language=en.

148 Go 100% Renewable Energy, "Energy City Frederikshavn—100% Renewable Energy Goal: 100% Renewable Electricity, Heat and Transportation by 2015," interviewwith Poul Rask Nielsen, http://www.go100percent.org/cms/?id=109, viewed December 2013.

149 Go 100% Renewable Energy, "Latest News from North America," http://www.go100percent.org/cms/index.php?id=121, viewed January 2013.

150 World Future Council, From Vision to Action: A Workshop Report on 100% Renewable Energies in European Regions (Hamburg: March 2013), pp.36-37, www.worldfuturecouncil.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Climate_and_Energy/From_Vision_to_Action_Policy_Recommendations_for_100__RE_in_European_Regions.pdf; U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, "Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level" (Golden, CO: December 2010), www.nrel.gov/tech_deployment/state_local_activities/status_impact.html.

151 The Climate Institute, "China launching two more carbon markets," November 2013, http://www.climateinstitute.org.au/articles/media-briefs/china-launching-two-more-carbon-markets.html; World Resources Institute, China FAQs, "Emissions Trading in China: First Reports from the Field," January 2014, http://www.chinafaqs.org/blog-posts/why-does-china-want-carbon-trading; Carnegie Endowmentfor International Peace, "A New Focus for U.S.-China Cooperation: Low-Carbon Cities," July 2013, http://carnegieendowment.org/2013/07/24/ new-focus-for-u.s.-china-cooperation-low-carbon-cities/ggf3.

152 IEA, Cities, Towns and Renewable Energy – YIMFY (Paris: IEA/OECD, 2009), http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/Cities2009-1.pdf.

153 "UK DECC announces £10 million fund for urban community energy," AltEnergy Mag, January 2014, http://www.altenergymag.com/news/2014/01/27/decc-announces-pound10-million-fund-for-urban-community-energy/32109.

154 Nick Harrison, "Is It Time to Devolve Climate Change Policy Making?" Responding to Climate Change, 2 September 2013, http://www.rtcc.org/2013/09/02/is-it-time-to-devolve-climate-change-policy-making/#sthash. Wox07fv0.dpuf Local.

155 Ethekwini municipality was selected in 2013 to participate in the national pilot programme and to develop a "vertically integrated" national appropriate mitigation action (v-NAMA). Training webinars will be held in 2014 by GIZ and ICLEI to build capacity on V-NAMA development."Ethekwini Municipality Hosts Energy Efficiency Workshop," Journalismlziko, April 2013, http://journalismiziko.dut.ac.za/current-affairs/ethekwini-municipality-hosts-energy-efficiency-workshop/

156 IEA, op. cit. note 152.

157 See the Urban-LEDS project with UN-HABITAT and ICLEI as implementation partners, funded by the European Commission, www.urban-leds.org. The results will be shared with another 21 satellite cities, per Urban Low Emission Development Strategies (Urban LEDS), "Urban-LEDS Eight Model Cities Selected," 3 December 2013, http://urbanleds.iclei.org/index.php?id=127&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=5&cHash=bld7fcc5dd6237bb96b8bd3fa88a9f95 http://www.iclei.org/en/details/article/iclei-leads-national-subnational-integration-in-low-emission-development.html.

158 Diane Moss, "100% Renewable Energy: Becoming the New Normal?" Clean Technica, 22 February 2013, http://cleantechnica.com/2013/02/22/100-renewable-energy-becoming-the-new-normal/.

159 City of London, "Local Plan & Community Infrastructure Levy, Infrastructure Delivery Plan," July 2013, http://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/services/environment-and-planning/planning/planning-policy/local-development-framework/Documents/infrastructure-delivery-plan-july-2013.pdf.

160 EU Covenant of Mayors, "Signatories," www.covenantofmayors.eu/about/signatories_en.html, viewed January 2014.

161 "Obama plan offers help to U.S.cities on climate's front lines," Reuters, 26 June 2013, http://planetark.org/wen/69054.

162 "Asheville Next City That Has Voted to Go Beyond Coal," Grist, 27 October 2013, http://grist.org/article/asheville-votes-to-move-beyond-coal/.

163 "Thousands of German Cities and Villages Looking to Buy Back Their Power Grid," GreenTech Media, 11 October 2013," http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/Thousands-of-German-Cities-and-Villages-Looking-to-Buy-Back-Their-Power-Gri,.

164 "Recommunalization in Germany 72 new municipal power utilities since 2005," Renewables International, 13 September 2013, http://www.renewablesinternational.net/72-new-municipal-power-utilities-since-2005/150/537/72825/.

165 Cognisito, "The Transformation of America's Energy Economy," 15 November 2013, http://cognoscenti.wbur.org/2013/11/15/boulder-xcel-robert-massie; "City-Owned Texas Utility Already Serves 40% Renewable Energy," Renewable Energy World, 4 December 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/blog/post/2013/12/city-owned-texas-utility-already-serves-40-renewable-energy?cmpid=WNL-Wednesday-December4-2013.

166 The new 100 MW FIT is the successor to the LADWP's 10 MW FIT Demonstration Program, launched in May 2012, which restricted projects to solar PV systems of 30-999 kW and helped gauge market pricing and test the initial programme's structure. Under the new FIT, the first 100 MW of local rooftop solar PV will be procured under a set-price FIT, while the second 50 MW will be priced competitively through an RFP system that is bundled with a utility-scale solar project (see articles fordetails). American Public Power Association, "Distributed Generation," November 2013, http://www.publicpower.org/files/PDFs/Distributed%20Generation-Nov2013.pdf; LA Business Council, "Largest in the Nation Feed in Tariff Solar Program Kicks Off," April 2013, http://www.labusinesscouncil.org/LargestintheNation-Feedin-Tariff-Solar-Program-Kicks-Off.

167 The FIT tariff for solar PV was initially set based on the utility's avoided cost of providing electricity. Vote Solar, "How a Municipal Utility Charted a Path to 48 Renewables by Going Big on Solar," webinar, 24 July 2013, http://votesolar.org/2013/07/24/palo-altos-path-to-48-renewable-power-webinar-recording/; Lindsay Joye, City of Palo Alto Utilities, personal communication with REN21, November 2013.

168 City of Palo Alto, "Palo Alto Plugs Into 100% Carbon-Free Electricity," press release (Palo Alto, CA: 4 March 2013), http://www.cityofpaloalto.org/civica/press/display asp?layout=1&Entry=864; U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Feed-in Tariff: A Policy Tool Encouraging Deployment of Renewable Electricity Technologies," 30 May 2013, http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=11471; Fort Collins City council approved rates at USD 0.18/kWh for 10-100 kW and USD 0.15/kWh for >100-1,000 kW, per City of Fort Collins Utilities, "Fort Collins Solar Power Purchase Program," 6 August 2013, http://www.fcgov.com/utilities/img/site_specific/uploads/Solar_Power_Purchasing_Fact_Sheet.pdf.

169 Shota Furuya, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), personal communication with REN21, January 2014.

170 City of Sydney, "Submission by the City of Sydney to the Inquiry by the Public Accounts Committee into Cogeneration/Trigeneration in NSW," 2013, www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au.

171 The sixstateswith CCAare California, Illinois, Massachusetts, Ohio, NewJersey, and Rhode Island. Tom's River, Montgomery County, Monroe, and Plumsted switched to aggregation in 2013. Monterey, Santa Cruz, Lowell, Ashby, Lynn, Swampscott, Natick, Greenfield, and the Hampshire Council of Governments (HCOG), which represents more than 20 municipalities, have initiated the process to create CCAs in 2013. San Diego and Yolo County are exploring CCA as an option. Tufts University, Metropolitan Area Planning Council, "Community Choice Aggregation: Municipal Bulk Buying of Electricity in Massachusetts," May 2013, http://ase.tufts.edu/uep/degrees/field_project_reports/2013/Team_7_Final_Report_2013.pdf; Triple Pundit, "Big Progress Towards Local Clean Energy Solutions, Community Choice Aggregation," October 2013, http://www.triplepundit.com/podium/big-progress-local-clean-energy-solutions-community-choice-aggregation/.

172 Triple Pundit, op. cit. note 171.

173 Tufts University, Metropolitan Area Planning Council, op. cit. note 171.

174 The cities are waiting approval from the Gujarat Electricity Regulatory Commission, per Edgar Meza, "India Sets 10 GW Solar Target by 2017," PV Magazine, 26 September 2013, http://www.pv-magazine.com/news/details/beitrag/india-sets-10-gw-solar-target-by-2017-_100012849.

175 Green Business Guide, "Reverse metering in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metro," 2013, http://www.greenbusinessguide.co.za/reverse-metering-in-the-nelson-mandela-bay-metro/.

176 "Guntur Emerging as a Solar Power House," The Hindu, 19 December 2013, http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Vijayawada/guntur-emerging-as-a-solar-power-house/ article5477374.ece; Ashok Pradhan, "Green Rating in Housing Norms," Times of India, 10 November 2013, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhubaneswar/Green-rating-in-housing-norms/articleshow/25524418.cms; Nagpur is the second city in the country to kick off the model solar city project after Chandigarh, per Anjaya Anparthi, "4 Years on, Sun Rises on Solar City Works," Times of India, 23 October 2013, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/nagpur/4-years-on-sun-rises-on-solar-city-works/articleshow/24562773.cms; "Delegation to study feasibility of city's solar energy projects," Times of India, 6 October 2013, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/aurangabad/Delegation-to-study-feasibility-of-citys-solar-energy-projects/articleshow/23601715.cms.

177 ChrisMeehan, "KansasCityGoesSolarat80 Buildings," SolarReviews.com, 30 May 2013, http://www.solarreviews.com/news/Kansas-City-Goes-Solar-80-Buildings-5-29-13.

178 City of Sydney, "Renewable Energy," http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/vision/sustainability/carbon-reduction/renewable-energy, viewed March 2014; Palmerston North City Council, "Largest Solar Farm in NZ to Be Built in Palmerston North," Scoop hdependent News, 20 December 2013, http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/AK1312/S00668/largest-solar-farm-in-nz-to-be-built-in-palmerston-north.htm.

179 The VPP project will run forfour years afterwhich the participants can take over the BlueGen unit for an administrative fee. These are fuel cell micro-CH P units to compensate for the varying output of the solar park (6 MW) once completed, per David Appleyard, "Dutch VPP using Solar PV and Fuel Cell Tech," Renewable Energy World, 14 November 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/11/dutch-vpp-uses-pv-and-fuel-cell-hybrid?cmpid=SolarNL-Saturday-Novemberl6-2013.

180 World Bank, "China—Green Energyfor Low-Carbon City Project in Shanghai Project," 6 February 2013, http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P127034/green-energy-schemes-low-carbon-city-shanghai?lang=en.

181 The code covers all buildings largerthan 50,000 square metres (m2); it also applies to hotels and healthcare facilities largerthan 20,000 m2, and educational facilities largerthan 10,000 m2, per "Jakarta Set to See High-Rise 'Green' Buildings," Jakarta Post, 13 April 2013, http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/04/13/jakarta-set-see-high-rise-green-buildings.html.

182 For domestic buildings largerthan 300 m2 to install 500 W solar PV systems, non-domestic buildings largerthan 500 m2 (excluding five-star hotels) to install 2 kWp systems, and five-star hotels to install 5 kWp systems, per Ashok Pradhan, "Here comes the sun," Times of India, 3 March 2013, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhubaneswar/Here-comes-the-sun/articleshow/18771780.cms.

183 The cities are integrating the green rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (Griha), the national rating system for green buildings, in city regulations. Griha, by its qualitative and quantitative assessment criteria, is able to rate a building on the degree of its greenness. Buildings getting Griha ratings get incentives from MNRE, per Ashok Pradhan, "Green Rating in Housing Norms," Times of India, 10 November 2013, http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-11-10/bhubaneswar/43885245_1_bhubaneswar-development-authority-green-rating-griha.

184 Clean Technica, "Solar Mandate Approved By Sebastopol, California," 22 May 2013, http://cleantechnica.com/2013/05/22/solar-mandate-approved-by-sebastopol-california/; Matt Hickman, "Sebastopol Is Second California City Requiring Solar on New Homes," Mother Nature Network, 13 May 2013, http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/solar-mandate-embraced-by-second-california-city; Miranda Green, "California Towns Pass Law Requiring New Buildings to Have Solar Panels," The Daily Beast, 10 May 2013, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/05/10/california-towns-pass-law-requiring-new-buildings-to-have-solar-panels.html. In Sebastopol, new homes that are on lots of 7,000 square feet (650 m2) or more must have solar panels that can produce up to 1 kW of energy at any given time. Lancaster requires solar PV systems of 1-1.5 kW for every new home built on lots largerthan 7,000 square feet (650 m2); builders will also have the option of building distributed systems for new developments.

184 Clean Technica, "Solar Mandate Approved By Sebastopol, California," 22 May 2013, http://cleantechnica.com/2013/05/22/solar-mandate-approved-by-sebastopol-california/; Matt Hickman, "Sebastopol Is Second California City Requiring Solar on New Homes," Mother Nature Network, 13 May 2013, http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/solar-mandate-embraced-by-second-california-city; Miranda Green, "California Towns Pass Law Requiring New Buildings to Have Solar Panels," The Daily Beast, 10 May 2013, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/05/10/california-towns-pass-law-requiring-new-buildings-to-have-solar-panels.html. In Sebastopol, new homes that are on lots of 7,000 square feet (650 m2) or more must have solar panels that can produce up to 1 kW of energy at any given time. Lancaster requires solar PV systems of 1-1.5 kW for every new home built on lots largerthan 7,000 square feet (650 m2); builders will also have the option of building distributed systems for new developments.

186 Bekezela Phakathi, "Cape Town to Launch Solar Water Heater Accreditation Programme," Business Day, 26 July 2013, http://www.bdlive.co.za/national/science/2013/07/26/cape-town-to-launch-solar-water-heater-accreditation-programme.

187 Tyler Hamilton, "Kathleen Wynne Fills Gap in Ontario Energy Policy," Toronto Star, 9 November 2013, http://www.thestar.com/business/2012/11/09/kathleen_wynne_fills_gap_in_ontario_energy_policy.html.

188 "Toronto Closer to Launching Ontario's First PACE Pilot Program This Fall," Clean Break, 27 June 2013, http://www.cleanbreak.ca/2013/06/27/toronto-closer-to-launching-ontarios-first-pace-pilot-program-this-fall/comment-page-1/; "Toronto City Council Unanimously Approves Residential PACE Pilot Project for Toronto—It's a Go!" Clean Break, 19 July 2013, http://www.cleanbreak.ca/2013/07/19/toronto-city-council-unanimously-approves-residential-pace-pilot-project-for-toronto-its-a-go/

189 Thompson & Knight Attorneys and Counselors, "Texas Gov. Rick Perry Approves PACE Program for Low-Cost Financing of Water, Energy Conservation Projects," 19 June 2013, http://www.tklaw.com/texas-gov-rick-perry-approves-pace-program-for-low-cost-financing-of-water-energy-conservation-projects/; U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, "Commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) Primer," (undated), http://wwwl.eere.energy.gov/wip/pdfs/commercial_pace_primer_revised.pdf; "List of PACE Programs," PACENow.org, http://pacenow.org/resources/all-programs/, viewed 21 March 2014; "PACE Financing Option for Residential Solar Making a Comeback," CleanEnergyAuthority.com, 29 November 2013, http://www.cleanenergyauthority.com/solar-energy-news/pace-financing-for-solar-making-a-comeback-112913; "Focus on Michigan: Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) Market is Growing," PRWeb.com, 11 December 2013, http://www.prweb.com/releases/2013/12/prwebll406164.htm.

190 "Argentina: Other Municipalities Follow Frontrunner City Rosario, " Solar Thermal World, 7 August 2013, http://solarthermalworld.org/contentargentina-other-municipalities-follow-frontrunner-city-rosario.

191 Bekezela Phakathi, "Cape Town Steps Up Drive to Roll Out Solar Water Heaters," Business Day, 4 November 2013, http://www.bdlive.co.za/business/energy/2013/11/04/cape-town-steps-up-drive-to-roll-out-solar-water-heaters.

192 Loans are repaid by homeowners over a decade through an increased property tax, per Watercanada, "HalifaxSolar City Program Reducing Water Use and CO2 Emissions," 25 October 2013, http://watercanada.net/2013/halifax-solar-city-program-reducing-water-use-and-co2-emissions/.

193 "State Based and Municipal Corporation Based Incentives on Solar Water Heaters," InSolTherm Times, vol. I, Iss.8, http://mnre.gov.in/file-manager/solar-thermal-newsletter/voloume-1-issue-8/EN/freatureStory.php.

194 C40, "London Must drive Smart Innovation and Investment," 16 April 2013, http://c40.org/c40blog/london-must-drive-smart-innovation-and-investment; "How Cities Can Reach 100% Renewable Energy," AltEnergy Mag, 28 January 2014, http://www.altenergymag.com/emagazine/2013/12/how-cities-can-reach-100-renewable-energy/2181. The city plan has identified "low carbon infrastructure zones," specific areas in the city that have high energy demand loads that will be supplied by low carbon energy via the thermal network. Key features of such a system are: renewable gas developed from waste converted into substitute natural gas and injected into the gas grid; the use of "power to gas" technologies for surplus renewable electricity from variable renewable electricity generation technologies, such as solar and wind converted into renewable hydrogen or renewable gas and injected into the gas grid; and heat recovered from decentralised electricity generation for supplying heating and cooling.

195 "Indianapolis: First US City to Require Electric Vehicles," ndianapolis: Sustainable Business News, December 2012, http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/index.cfm/go/news.display/id/24373; "New York City Mandates Biodiesel," Render Magazine, October 2013, http://www.rendermagazine.com/articles/2013-issues/october-2013/new-york-city-mandates-biodiesel/.

196 C40, "Bogota Electrifies its Public Transportation System," 29 May 2013, http://c40.org/blog_posts/bogot%C3%A1-electrifies-its-public-transportation-system; "Volvo Sells 200 Hybrid Buses to Bogota, Colombia," Busworld Industry News, 11 August 2013, http://www.busworld.org/articles/detail/1864; EVsRoll, "Electric Taxis," http://www.evsroll.com/Electric_Taxis.html, viewed 17 March 2014.

197 "WEG Helps Equip Brazilian Bus with 100% Battery Drive," press release (Jaragua do Sul, Brazil: 13 December 2013), http://www.weg.net/ca/Media-Center/News/Products-Solutions/WEG-helps-equip-Brazilian-bus-with-100-battery-drive. Adelaide, Australia, and Lublin, Poland, both launched solar-powered buses in 2013, per "First Solar Powered Public Transport," SA Breaking News, 20 September 2013, http://www.sabreakingnews.co.za/2013/09/20/first-solar-powered-public-transport/, and "Lublin Powers Buses with Solar Cell from Midsummer," PV Magazine, October 2013, http://www.pv-magazine.com/services/press-releases/details/beitrag/lublin-powers-buses-with-solar-cell-from-midsummer_100013066/.

198 City of Johannesburg, "City of Joburg's Metrobus Company issues tender for new buses as part of advancing green transport agenda," press release (Johannesburg: October 2013), http://www.joburg.org.za/index.php?option=com_con tent&view=article&id=8782:city-of-joburgs-metrobus-company-issues-tender-for-new-buses-as-part-of-advancing-green-transport-agenda&catid=217:press-releases-2013&ltemid=114#ixzz2tohlBceU; "London Mayor Calls for Waste Oil to Be Used as Biofuel for Buses," Waste Management World, July 2013, http://www.waste-management-world.com/articles/2013/07/london-mayor-calls-for-waste-oil-to-be-used-as-biofuel-for-buses.html; Stagecoach, "London Buses to Run on 'Chip Fat' in Pilot scheme," press release (Perth, Scotland, U.K.: 7 November 2013), http://www.stagecoach.com/media/news-releases/2013/2013-11-07.aspx.

199 Palo Alto from "New homes built in Palo Alto will be pre-wired for electric car chargers," Treehugger, 1 0ctober2013, http://www.treehugger.com/cars/new-homes-built-palo-alto-will-be-pre-wired-electric-car-chargers.html; "Palo Alto Looks to Require Electric Vehicle Chargers," Mercury News, 24 October 2013, http://www.mercurynews.com/breaking-news/ci_24162107/palo-alto-looks-require-electric-vehicle-chargers-new, October 2013; New Yorkfrom "Green City Grids for EVs," Renewable Energy World, 21 March 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/03/greening-city-grids-for-evs, and from Transportation Nation, "NYC Mayorwants 10000 New Electric Vehicle Charging Spaces," February 2013, http://www.wnyc.org/story/285133-nyc-mayor-wants-10000-new-electric-vehicle-charging-spaces.

200 ICLEI, "414 cities report raft of inspiring climate actions," November 2013, http://www.iclei.org/details/article/414-cities-report-raft-of-inspiring-climate-actions.html.

201 C40Cities Climate Leadership Group, "Year in Review: C40 Makes Great Strides in Research Agenda," 6 January 2014, http://www.c40.org/c40blog/year-in-review-c40-makes-great-strides-in-research-agenda; C40Cities Climate Leadership Group, "Expert Voices: Stephen Hammer, Lead Urban Specialist—Cities and Climate Change, The World Bank," 16 October 2013, http://c40.org/c40blog/expert-voices-stephen-hammer-lead-urban-specialist-—-cities-and-climate-change-the-world-bank; C40Cities Climate Leadership Group, "C40, ICLEI, WRI and Partners Achieve a Significant Milestone Towards Establishing a Single Standard for Measuring Emissions for Cities," 14 May 2012, http://www.c40.org/c40blog/c40-iclei-wri-and-partners-achieve-a-significant-milestone-towards-establishing-a-single-standard-for-measuring-emissions-for-cities.

202 C40Cities Climate Leadership Group, "C40 & Siemens Announce Broad Collaboration on Cities and Sustainability," press release (New York: 19 April 2013), http://www.c40.org/press_releases/press-release-c40-siemens-announce-broad-collaboration-on-cities-and-sustainability.

203 This led to the Durban Platform (ADP) decision text, which notes the inclusion of cities in technical meetings and in a sub-national forum to be held in the next ADP session, per International nstituteforSustainable Development, "Summary of the Warsaw Climate Change Conference, 11-23 November 2013," Earth Negotiations Bulletin, 26 November 2013, http://www.iisd.ca/vol12/enbl2594e.html; Gino Van Begin, ICLEI, "Look to Cities for Real Climate Action!" Outreach (COP 19 - WARSAW), November 2013, http://www.stakeholderforum.org/sf/outreach/index.php/previous-editions/cop-19/198-cop-19-day-9-cities-urban-governance-and-transport/11626-look-to-cities-for-real-climate-action