Hydropower

HYDROPOWER MARKETS

An estimated 40 GW of new hydropower capacity was commissioned in 2013, increasing total global capacity by about 4% to approximately 1,000 GW.i 1 Global hydropower generation, which varies each year with hydrological conditions, was estimated at 3,750 TWh in 2013.2 The top countries for hydropower capacity and generation remained China (260 GW/905 TWh), Brazil (85.7 GW/415 TWh), the United States (78.4 GW/269 TWh), Canada (76.2 GW/388 TWh)ii, Russia (46.7 GW/174.7 TWh), India (43.7 GW/estimated 143 TWh), and Norway(29.3 GW/129 TWh), together accounting for 62% of global installed capacity.3 (See Figure 10 and Reference Table R6.) An estimated 2 GWof pumped storage capacity was added in 2013, bringing the global total to 135-140 GW.iii 4

The lion'sshare of all new capacity in 2013was installed byChina, with significant additions by Turkey, Brazil, Vietnam, India, and Russia.5 (See Figure 11.) China commissioned a record 29 GW, for a total of 260 GW of hydropower capacity at year's end. Among significant milestones for China in 2013 was the start of operations at the Xiluodu plant in July, with 9.2 GW of capacity generating electricity by year's end. Xiluodu is expected to reach full capacity (13.86 GW) by mid-2014, when it will rank as the third largest hydropower plant in the world, behind China's Three Gorges and Brazil's Itaipu.6

The 6.4 GW Xiangjiaba plant, also on the Jinsha River, will be China's third largest hydropower plant when completed in 2015. By mid-2013, four 800 MW turbine-generators—reported to be the world's largest hydroelectric units—had been installed at this facility.7 By the country's own accounts, investment in China's hydropower infrastructure exceeded USD 20 billion (CNY 124.6 billion) for the year.8 Chinese banks and industry have also pursued hydropower projects overseas, with a notable presence in Africa and Southeast Asia.9

Turkey continues a rapid expansion in its hydropower sector to meet significant growth in national electricity demand. After adding about 2 GW in 2012, Turkey brought another 2.9 GW on line in 2013, for a total of 22.5 GW, placing Turkey among the top 10 countries for hydropower capacity.10 Turkey's hydropower capacity generated 59.2 TWh in 2013.11

Brazil added at least 1.53 GW and possibly as much as 2 GW in 2013, including 264 MW of small-scale hydro (<30 MW) capacity, for a year-end total of at least 85.7 GW.12 The 334 MW Simplicio plant, completed mid-year, is considered notable for its high power output relative to reservoir area.13 In addition, two run-of-river plants, both part of the Madera River complex, advanced during 2013. The first of fifty 75 MW turbines at the Jirau plant (3.75 GW) became operational and, by year's end, the Santo Antonio plant (3.6 GW) had 22 turbines in operation. Santo Antonio was expanded from 44 to 50 bulb-type turbines to improve operational flexibility in a river characterised by great flow variability.14 These two plants exemplify a trend in Brazil away from larger reservoirs and toward run-of-river projects, driven in part by the objective of reducing land use in sensitive areas and improving project sustainability.15 The Belo Monte has also been modified to address sustainability concerns. To reduce flooded area, its reservoir capacity will be smaller than originally planned, with a firm year-round capacity of only 4.5 GW; however, it will retain a peak seasonal capability of 11.2 GW, second in Brazil only to the 14 GW Itaipu plant.16 Another significant project under way in 2013 was the Teles Pires project (1,820 MW by 2015), which overcame charges of having neglected obligatory social impact studies.17

Vietnam has developed its hydropower resources at a rapid pace in recent years. It appears that at least 1.3 GW of capacity was added in 2013, for a total of 14.2 GW installed.18 However, following earthquake damage at the Song Tranh 2 dam, as well as concerns about adverse social impacts associated with resettlements, local and central governments are taking a more measured approach to the development of additional hydropower facilities, calling for evaluations of safety at existing dams and curtailment of new hydropower development.19

Significant capacity was also added in India and Russia during 2013. India installed 0.8 GW of hydropower capacity in 2013, of which nearly 0.6 GW was in installations larger than 25 MW.20 In late 2013, the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague gave a green light to India's 330 MW Kishenganga plant, having determined that it would qualify as a run-of-river plant and thus not violate terms of the 1960 Indus Waters Treaty with Pakistan.21 Russia may have installed as much as 3.2 GW of new turbine-generators during the year, but the net increase in installed capacity amounted to only 0.7 GW, with rehabilitation of existing facilities presumably accounting for the difference.22

Africa saw at least two projects completed during the year. Ghana's second largest hydropower station, the 400 MW Bui plant, and Gabon's 160 MW Grand Poubara plant both became operational in late 2013.23 These plants were built by Sinohydro (China) and financed largely by China Exim Bank.24 Meanwhile, rehabilitation started on the 350 MW Inga 1, which entered service in the early 1970s.25 There are many ageing facilities in Africa that operate below original rated power and now require refurbishment, such as ongoing work on the Kainji and Jebba plants in Nigeria.26

There is growing support for future development in Africa, and many impending new hydropower sites exist on the continent. During 2013, Alstom (France) was awarded a contract for eight 375 MW Francis turbines at the Grand Renaissance Dam in Ethiopia, a project that will total 6 GW and has raised tensions with downstream Sudan and Egypt over water rights.27 The World Bank announced funding for the Regional Rusumo Falls plant (80 MW) under its new Great Lakes Regional Initiative, with the primary aim of increasing power supply for the people of Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi.28 Also in 2013, a new purchase agreement between South Africa and Congo prompted an announcement that construction of the Inga 3 project (4.8 GW) on the Congo River would begin by late 2015.29 This project is the long-anticipated next step towards what might become the largest hydropower complex in the world, at about 40 GW.30

i - The GSR 2013 reported a global total of 990 GW at the end of 2012, but that figure has been revised downward by 30 GW. For additional information, see Methodological Notes, page 142, and Endnote 1 of this section. Unless otherwise specified, all capacity numbers exclude pure pumped storage capacity if possible.

ii - Despite slightly lower total capacity, Canada's baseloaded output exceeds the more load-following output in the United States.

iii - Pumped hydro plants are not energy sources but means of energy storage. As such, they involve conversion losses and are powered by renewable or non-renewable electricity. Pumped storage can play an important role as balancing power, in particular for variable renewable resources. Some conventional hydropower plants also have pumping capability.

HYDROPOWER

Figure 10. Hydropower Global Capacity, Shares of Top Six Countries, 2013

Source: See Endnote 3 for this section.

Global capacity reaches 1,000 GW

Figure 11. Hydropower Capacity and Additions, Top Six Countries for Capacity Added, 2013

Additions are net of repowering and retirements.

Source: See Endnote 5 for this section.

Pumped storage capacity expanded during 2013 in China and Europe. China added 1.2 GW of pure pumped storage capacity for a total of 21.5 GW.31 In addition, the last phase of Spain's La Muela pumped storage complex was inaugurated, counting 2 GW of capacity at year's end.32 La Muela was conceived as part of a backbone for Spain's extensive variable renewable power capacity.33 It has been argued that further expansion of storage capacity, which is considered increasingly important as shares of variable wind and solar power rise, will require that markets place greater monetary value on facilities that provide storage and ancillary services.34 Variable resources have helped to moderate peak system loads and thus peak power prices, but in doing so, they may also have upset the traditional business model for pumped storage. Subsequently, power markets may need to evolve to reflect these changing circumstances.35

Looking ahead, plans for future hydro pumped storage projects in Europe are said to be hampered by onerous market conditions such as two-way transmission fees (for both generation and pumping).36 On the other hand, Germany appears to have addressed such concerns to some extent and has expanded exemptions for pumped storage facilities from grid charges under certain conditions.37 However, pumped storage has always had relevance outside the context of variable resources. For instance, Japan's 26 GW of pumped storage capacity (in addition to 22 GW of conventional hydropower capacity), was conceived primarily as load-following support to baseload nuclear power; going forward, it will be used increasingly to balance variable resources.38

Any shortage of transmission capacity and interconnection can constrain both access to hydropower resources and their potential for balancing variable renewable resources.39 Trans-border interconnections conceived primarily to facilitate flow of hydropower include the Eastern Electricity Highway between Ethiopia and Kenya, which was launched in 2013 and could carry up to 2 GW upon completion, planned for 2018.40 The 1,800 kilometre Central American SIEPACi interconnection was largely completed in 2013, improving transmission capacity and reliability across the region. Despite its modest scale (300 MW capacity), it is regarded as an opportunity to increase implementation of large and small renewable energy projects, including hydropower.41 In North America, at least two nterconnection projects were under consideration in 2013 to bring Canadian hydropower to U.S. markets: the controversial Northern Pass project that would supply 1,200 MW of baseload power from HydroQuebec (Canada) to New England, and an agreement to complement a North Dakota wind farm with 250 MW of balancing supply from Manitoba Hydro (Canada).42

In 2013, the World Bank Group announced that it remains committed to environmentally and sociallysustainable hydropower projects of all sizes and types, highlighting hydropower's role in climate change mitigation, but also its vulnerability to any climate-related water scarcity.43 Uncertainty regarding the future impact of climate change on hydropower and other renewable energy technologies—including energy production, policies, and markets—prompted Norway's Statkraft to launch an R&D programme on the topic.44

HYDROPOWER INDUSTRY

Hydropower capacity additions in the five-year period end-2008 to 2013 were significantly greater than during the previous five years.45 However, despite a significant jump in new capacity in 2013, the intake of new orders for some major companies declined relative to 2012.

For example, Andritz Hydro (Austria) reported that both sales and new orders were down from very high levels in previous years, although project activity was deemed satisfactory for small-scale hydropower.46 Neworders were down forVoith Hydro (Germany) as well. Sales increased by 6% in the 2012-13 fiscal year, but the market was below Voith's expectations. However, the company noted that the market for plant modernisation is a major driver of new orders in many regions.47 Voith also announced advances in the area of very large generating units (such as the 784 MW turbines supplied to the Xiluodu plant in China), as well as small in-stream and low-head units, such as its prototype StreamDiver.48

Alstom (France) noted a slowdown in demand for new capacity but growing demand for rehabilitation of the ageing stock of existing plants.49 Aiming to strengthen its capacity in China, Alstom inaugurated its upgraded hydropower industrial site in Tianjin, which supplied four 800 MW Francis turbines to the Xiangjiaba plant in 2012-13.50 Alstom also inaugurated a global hydropower technology centre in Grenoble, France, for all of its hydropower R&D.51

Dongfang's (China) production of hydropower turbine-generators was reported to be 4.2 GW in 2013, up 28.6% from 2012. A company highlight for the year was installation of a 770 MW unit at the Xiluodu plant. Harbin (also in China) produced 3.2 GW of hydropower turbine-generators during the year, a decrease of 3.7% relative to 2012.52

The hydropower industry is tackling projects of ever-larger capacity, and manufacturers are setting new records for capacity of individual turbines (>800 MW per unit). At the same time, there are indications of a trend towards reduced reservoir capacity and the development of multi-turbine run-of-river projects, as seen in Brazil. As part of this trend, the industry has been developing more-flexible turbines that can adapt to varying flow rates. The use of multiple in-stream turbines in place of few large ones requires different technology, materials, and expertise.53 Another trend is the rise of regional approaches to system development, including interconnection, and a view of hydropower as complementing other renewable energy technologies.54

1 Last year's GSR reported a total of 990 GW, but that figure has been revised downward by 30 GW based on input from the International Hydropower Association (IHA) Hydropower Database, personal communication with REN21, March 2014; from preliminary estimates in International Energy Agency (IEA), Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014 (Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/IEA, forthcoming 2014); and from Hydropower Equipment Association (HEA) Database, based on its members' aggregated input, personal communication with REN21, April 2014.

2 Based on input from IHA, personal communication with REN21, April 2014; from IEA, op. cit. note 1; and from a projection based on 2012 hydropower output of 3,673 TWh from BP, Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 (London: June 2013), as well as observed average year-on-year change in output (+2.8%) for top producing countries (China, Brazil, Canada, the United States, the European Union-27, Russia, India, and Norway), which together accounted for over 70% of global hydropower output.

3 Country data from the following sources: China: China Electricity Council (CEO, summary of electricity supply and demand from CEC's 2014 Annual Report, http://www.cec.org.cn/guihuayutongji/gongxufenxi/dianligongxufenxi/2014-02-25/117272.html; Shi Pengfei, China Wind Energy Association, personal communication with REN21, 12 March 2014; Brazil: 1,533 MW (264 MW small hydro and 1,264 MW large hydro) added in 2013, per National Agency for Electrical Energy (ANEEL), "Fiscalização dos serviços degeração," February 2013, http://www.aneel.gov.br/area. cfm?idArea=37; large hydro capacity is listed as 81.093 GW at end-2013 and small hydro at 4.656 GW, for a total of 85,749 MW; generation from National Electrical System Operator of Brazil (ONS), "Geração de Energia," http://www.ons.org.br/historico/geracao_energia.aspx; United States: 2012 capacity from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electric Power Annual, Table 4.3 Existing Capacity by Energy Source, http://www.eia.gov/electricity/annual/html/epa_04_03.html; projected net additions in 2013 of 201 MW from idem, Table 4.5 Planned Generating Capacity Changes by Energy Source, 2013-2017, http://www.eia.gov/electricity/annual/html/epa_04_05.html; generation from EIA, Electric Power Monthly February 2014, Table 1.1, http://www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly; Canada: Canadian Hydropower Association, communication with REN21, February 2014; HEA Database, op. cit. note 1; generation from Statistics Canada, "Table 127-0002 Electric Power Generation, by class of electricity producer," http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim; Russia: capacity and generation from System Operator of the Unified EnergySystem of Russia, Report on the Unified Energy System in 2013 (Moscow: undated), http://www.so-ups.ru/fileadmin/files/company/reports/disclosure/2014/ups_rep2013.pdf; India: installed capacity in 2013 (units largerthan 25 MW) of 39,893.4 MW from Government of India, Ministry of Power, Central Electricity Authority (CEA), "Installed capacity as of 31 December 2013," http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/inst_capacity/decl3.pdf, and idem, "List of H.E. Stations in the Country with Station Capacity Above 25 MW," http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/hydro/list_he__stations.pdf; capacity additions in 2013 (>25 MW) of 554 MW from CEA, "Executive Summary of the Power Sector (monthly)," http://www.cea.nic.in/exesum_cood. html; installed capacity in 2013 (<25 MW) of 3,763.15 MW from Government of India, Ministry of Newand Renewable Energy (MNRE), "Physical Progress (Achievements)," http://www.mnre. gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/, viewed 18 January 2014; capacity additions in 2013 (<25 MW) of 267 MW based on difference of year-end 2013 figure (above) and year-end 2012 figure (3,496.15 MW) from MNRE, Annual Report 2012-2013 (New Delhi: undated), Table 3.7, http://www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/publications/annual-report-2; generation for plants largerthan 25 MWfrom CEA, "Executive Summary of the Power Sector (monthly)," op. cit. this note, and output from hydropower plants smaller than 25 MW estimated, based on capacity from MNRE, Annual Report 2012-2013, op. cit. this note and on average capacity factor for large hydropowerfacilities in India; Norway: capacity of 29.3 GW from Seming Skau, Senior Engineer, Section for Resources, Energy Department, Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, via IHA Hydropower Database, personal communication with REN21, February 2014; generation from Statistics Norway, http://www.ssb.no/en. Figure 10 based on capacity and generation sources provided in this note.

4 Sources indicate total global pumped storage capacity in the range of 135-140 GW. In addition to government sources noted elsewhere, global and national capacity values based on input from IHA Hydropower Database, op. cit. note 2; from IEA, op. cit. note 1; and from HEA Database, op. cit. note 1.

5 China, Brazil, India, and Russia from relevant sources in Endnote 3. Other countries from the following sources: Turkey: capacity was 19,609.4 MW at the end of 2012 and 22,493.6 MW by 31 January 2014, from Dr. Öztürk Selvitop, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Republic of Turkey, "Hydropower in Turkish Energy Sector," presentation, Ankara, 4 March 2014, http://suyonetimi.ormansu.gov.tr/Libraries/su/Hydropower_in_Turkish_Energy_Sector.sflb.ashx. See also Turkish Electricity Transmission Company, capacity projections, http://www.teias. gov.tr/YayinRapor/APK/projeksiyon/KapasiteProjeksiyonu2013. docx; Vietnam: late 2013 capacityfrom Do Due Quan, director, Hydropower Department, General Department of Energy, "Policies on Sustainable Hydropower Development in Vietnam, presentation, Second Mekong River Commission Summit and nternational Conference, Ho Chi Minh City, 2-5 April 2014, http://www.mrcsummit.org/presentations/track2/1.2-d-policy-for-sustainable-dev-ofhydro-QuanDoDuc.pdf; 2012 year-end capacity of 12.95 GW from National Electricity Center of Vietnam, http://www.nldc.evn.vn/News/7/661/Bao-cao-tong-ket-nam-2012.aspx. Figure 11 based on capacity sources provided in this endnote and in Endnote 3.

6 China Three Gorges Corporation, "The Twelfth Generating Unit was Installed in the Xiluodu Hydropower Station with the Total nstalled Capacity Reaching9240 MW," http://www.ctgpc.com/news/news1.php?Newsld=80194; "China's 13.86-GW Xiluodu hydropower plant begins commercial operation, Hydro World, 17 July 2013, http://www.hydroworld.com/articles/2013/07/china-s-13-86-gw-xiluodu-hydrpower-plant-begins-commercial-operation.html.

7 Alstom, "Alstom commissions world's most powerful hydroelectric units at Xiangjiaba hydro power plant, in China," press release (Levallois-Perret Cedex: 21 July 2013), http://www.alstom.com/press-centre/2013/7/alstom-commissions-worlds-most-powerful-hydroelectric-units-at-xiangjiaba-hydro-power-plant-in-china/

8 China Electricity Council, Planning and Statistics Department, "2013 National Electricity Industry Statistics," 26 January 2014, http://www.cec.org.cn/guihuayutongji/tongjxinxi/yuedushuju/2014-01-26/116224.html (using Google Translate). Thisfigure may include investment in pumped storage.

9 Recent examples include China Exim financing the expansion by Sinohydro of Zimbabwe's Kariba plant, Sinohydro and Chinese National Electric Engineering contract forNigeria'sZungeru station, and Dongfang recently delivering the Allai Khwar project in Pakistan with more projects pending. "China lends Zimbabwe $319 million for Kariba hydropower upgrade," Times Live, 11 November 2013, http://www.timeslive.co.za/africa/2013/11/11/china-lends-zimbabwe-319-million-for-kariba-hydropower-upgrade; "Sinohydro Corp and CNEEC commence construction on 700MW hydro plant," Power Insider, 29 May 2013, http://www.pimagazine-asia.com/news/other-news/sinohydro-corp-and-cneec-commence-construction-on-700mw-hydro-plant; "Sino Hydro and ZPC sign on for Kariba hydroelectric power project upgrade," Hydro World, 27 December 2012, http://www.hydroworld.com/articles/2012/12/sino-hydro-and-zpc-sign-on-for-kariba-hydroelectric-power-project-upgrade.html; "Chinese company hands over Allai Khwar power project to WAPDA," Pak Tribune, 8 October 2013, http://paktribune.com/business/news/Chinese-compa ny-hands-over-Allai-Khwar-power-project-to-WAPDA-11655.html; "Fourth Tarbela Extension Hydropower Project: Wapda, Sinohydro ink agreement," Business Reporter, 10 September 2013, http://www.brecorder.com/fuel-a-energy/193/1229536.

10 Capacity was 19,609.4 MW at the end of 2012 and 22,493.6 MW by 31 January 2014, from Selvitop, op. cit. note 5; installed capacity in 2012 was 19,609.4 MW, from Turkish Electricity Transmission Company, op. cit. note 5, Table 12.

11 Ibid.

12 The loweradded-capacity figure of 1.53 GW and total capacity from ANEEL, "Fiscalização dos serviços de geração," updated February 2014, http://www.aneel.gov.br/arquivos/zip/Resumo_Geral_das_Usinas_fev_2014.zip. The larger added-capacity figure of 2 GW, which may account foradditional turbine-generators that were installed in 2014 but not fully commissioned orgrid-connected, from HEA Database, op. cit. note 1. The HEA database indicates that 90 GW of capacity was installed in Brazil by the end of 2014, which is a bout 4 GW more than government figures cited here.

13 "Reservoir filling begins at Brazil's Simplicio hydroelectric complex," Hydro World, 26 February 2013, http://www.hydroworld.com/articles/2013/02/reservoir-filling-begins-at-brazil-s-simplicio-hydroelectric-com.html; "Simplicio plant notable for its single drop of 115 m," PINI Web, 10 July 2013, http://piniweb.pini.com.br/construcao/infra-estrutura/obra-da-usina-de-simplicio-se-destaca-por-queda-unica-292341-1.aspx (in Portuguese).

14 "First Hydro Turbine at 3,750-MW Jirau now in operation," Hydro World, 11 September 2013, http://www.hydroworld.com/articles/2013/09/first-hydro-turbine-at-3-750-mw-jirau-now-in-operation.html; "Interview: Eduardo de Melo Pinto, CEO, Santo Antonio Energia, Brazil," Energyboardroom.com, 21 December 2013, http://www.energyboardroom.com/interviews/interview-eduardo-de-melo-pinto-ceo-santo-antonio-energia-brazil.

15 Richard Taylor, IHA, personal communication with REN21, 15 January 2014. Both are registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects and credited for significant carbon dioxide reductions beginning in 2013, per United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, CDM, "Project Search," http://cdm.unfccc.int/Projects/projsearch.html.

16 Taylor, op. cit. note 15; Simon Smith, IHA, personal communication with REN21, 12 March 2014.

17 "Work OK to resume at Brazil's 1.8-GW Teles Pires, court rules," Hydro World, 1 October 2013, http://www.hydroworld. com/articles/2013/09/work-ok-to-resume-at-brazil-s-1-8-gw-teles-pires-court-rules.html; other notable projects under way include: Colíder(300 MW by 2015), and Ferreira Gomes (252 MW by 2015), which saw its first of three Kaplan turbines installed in early 2014. ANEEL, "Construction schedule for large hydropower facilities as of February 2014," http://www.aneel.gov. br/arquivos/pdf/Cronograma_de_Eventos_UHE_fev_2014.pdf; "Voith Installs First Turbine Unit at Ferreira Gomes Hydropower Project," Hydro World, 16 January 2014, http://www.hydroworld.com/articles/2014/01/voith-installs-first-turbine-unit-at-ferreira-gomes-hydropower-project.html.

18 Late 2013 capacity of 14.24 GW and 2012 capacity of 11.67 GW (increase of 2.57 GW) from Do Duc Quan, op. cit. note 5; "Hydropower potential almostfully tapped: National Assembly," Vietnamnet, 5 November 2013, http://english.vietnamnet.vn/fms/govern ment/88389/hydropower-potential-almost-fully-tapped--national-assembly.html; addition of 1.3 GW based on 2012 year-end capacity of 12.95 GW from National Electricity Center of Vietnam, op. cit. note 5.

19 "Vietnamese prime minister calls for improvements to country's dam safety evaluations," Hydro World, 17 January 2013, http://www.hydroworld.com/articles/2013/01/vietnamese-prime-minister-calls-for-improvements-to-countrys-dam.html; "Vietnam halts 18 hydropower plant projects," Than Nien News, 8 July 2013, http://www.thanhniennews.com/society/vietnam-halts-18-hydropower-plant-projects-1930.html.

20 Installed (>25 MW) capacity of 39,893.4 MW in 2013 from CEA, "List of H.E. Stations in the Country with Station Capacity Above 25 MW," op. cit. note 3; 2013 capacity additions (>25 MW) of 554 MW from CEA, "Executive Summary of the Power Sector (monthly)," op. cit. note 3; 2013 capacity of small hydropower facilities of 3,763.15 MW from MNRE, "Physical Progress (Achievements)," op. cit. note 3; 2013 capacity additions (<25 MW) of 267 MW based on difference of year-end 2013 figure (above) and year-end 2012 figure (3,496.15 MW) from MNRE, Annual Report 2013-2013, op. cit. note 3, Table 3.7.

21 Permanent Court of Arbitration, "Court of Arbitration Renders Its Final Award in the First Arbitration underthe Indus Waters Treaty 1960," press release (The Hague: 21 December 2013), http://www.pca-cpa.org/showpage.asp?pag_id=1392.

22 Net capacity additions based on increased year-end figures from System Operator of the Unified Energy System of Russia, op.cit. note 3; see also relevant sources in note 3; gross capacity installations of 3.2 GW from HEA Database, op. cit. note 1.

23 Bui Power Authority, "President John Dramani Mahama commissions Bui Generating Station - adds 400MW to Ghana's installed capacity," http://www.buipowerauthority.com/node/154; "Gabon's 160-MW Grand Poubara hydroelectric plant enters full operation," Hydro World, 5 September 2013, http://www.hydroworld.com/articles/2013/09/gabon-s-160-mw-grand-poubara-enters-full-operation.html.

24 Sinohydro, "Business Portfolio," http://eng.sinohydro.com/index. php?m=content&c=index&a=lists&catid=42.

25 Voith Hydro, "Voith Modernizes Generatorsand Turbines at Inga I Hydropower Station in the Democratic Republic of Congo," press release (Heidenheim, Germany: 4 June 2013), http://voith.com/en/pm_newrev-2013-05-28_inga-i_en.pdf; International Water Powerand Dam Construction, "Andritz works on Inga 2 rehab," 19 March 2012, http://www.waterpowermagazine.com/news/newsandritz-works-on-inga-2-rehab.

26 AlexAbutu, "Nigeria: Kainji, Jebba Dams To Be Rehabilitated," Daily Trust, 31 January 2013, http://allafrica.com/stories/201301310431.html.

27 Alstom, "Alstom to supply hydroelectric equipmentfor the Grand Renaissance dam in Ethiopia," press release (Levallois-Perret Cedex: 7 January 2013), http://www.alstom. com/press-centre/2013/1/alstom-to-supply-hydroelectric-equipment-for-the-grand-renaissance-dam-in-ethiopia; "The Grand Renaissance Hydroelectric Project, Ethiopia," Power Technology, www.power-technology.com/projects/the-grand-renaissance-hydroelectric-project.

28 World Bank, "World Bank Approves Rusumo Falls Hydropower Plant," press release (Washington, DC: 6 August 2013), http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2013/08/06/world-bank-approves-rusumo-falls-hydropower-plant.

29 "Congo to commence construction of 40,000MW Inga hydro project," renewable-technology.com, 20 May 2013, http://www.renewable-technology.com/news/newscongo-to-commence-construction-of-40000mw-inga-hydro-project.

30 Sonal Patel, "Headwayfor Congo's Long-Delayed 40-GW Inga Hydro Project," Power Magazine, 1 December 2013, http://www.powermag.com/headway-for-congos-long-delayed-40-gw-inga-hydro-project/

31 Installed capacity for 2013 was 28.73 GW and pumped storage addition was 1.2 GW, from CEC, op. cit. note 3.

32 Iberdrola, "HRH The Prince of Asturias and Iberdrola Chairman Dedicate Cortes-La Muela Pumped-Storage Scheme in Valencia (Spain)," press release (Bilbao, Spain: 14 October 2013), http://www.iberdrola.es/press-room/press-releases/national-international/2013/detail/press-release/131014_NP_01_LaMuela. html.

33 Fernando Peran Montero and Juan J. Perez, "Wind-Hydro ntegration: Pumped Storage to Support Wind," Hydro World, 1 June 2009, http://www.hydroworld.com/articles/print/volume-17/issue-3/Articles/wind-hydro-integration-pumped-storage-to-support-wind.html.

34 European Commission, Directorate-General for Energy, "The future role and challenges of Energy Storage," DG ENER Working Paper, undated, http://ec.europa.eu/energy/infrastructure/doc/energy-storage/2013/energy_storage.pdf

35 Voith Hydro, Annual Report 2013 (Heidenheim, Germany undated), p. 79; Ray Smith, "German Sun Beats Swiss Water," Inter Press Service, 28 August 2013, http://www.ipsnews. net/2013/08/german-sun-beats-swiss-water/

36 Eurelectric, Europe Needs Hydro Pumped Storage: Five Recommendations (Brussels: May 2012), http://www.eurelectric.org/media/27210/eurelectric_5_recomm-pumped_storage-final_draft_clean-for_upload-2012-160-0002-01-e.pdf.

37 "Bundestag Approves 3rd Amendment of German Energy Act-Offshore Liability, Shutdown Restrictions for Conventional Power Plants, and More," German Energy Blog, 30 November 2012, http://www.germanenergyblog.de/?p=11581; stoRE, "Current situation in Germany," http://www.store-project.eu/en_GB/current-situation-in-the-target-countries-germany.

38 Hironao Matsubara, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies, Tokyo, personal communication with REN21, April 2014.

39 European Commission, op. cit. note 34.

40 "African Development Bank launches $1.26bn Kenya-Ethiopia transmission line," Power Technology, 8 May 2013, http://www.power-technology.com/news/newsafrican-development-bank-launches-126bn-kenya-ethiopia-transmission-line-project; World Bank, "The Eastern Electricity Highway Project under the First Phase of the Eastern Africa Power Integration Program," http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P126579/regional-eastern-africa-power-pool-project-apl1?lang=en.

41 Jay Zarnikau etal., "Will the SIEPAC Transmission Project Lead to a Vibrant Electricity Market in Central America?" IAEE Energy Forum (International Association for Energy Economics), Fourth Quarter 2013, http://www.iaee.org/en/publications/newsletterdl. aspx?id=211.

42 Michael Harris, "Northern Exposure: Canadian Hydro in the Spotlight," Hydro Review, December 2013.

43 World Bank, Toward a Sustainable Energy Future for All: Directions for the World Bank Group's Energy Sector (Washington, DC: 9 July 2013), http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2013/07/18016002/toward-sustainable-energy-future-all-directions-world-bank-group%C2%92s-energy-sector.

44 International Water Power and Dam Construction, "Statkraft starts new R&D programme on climate change," 21 November 2013, http://www.waterpowermagazine.com/news/newsstatkraft-starts-new-rd-programme-on-climate-change.

45 Taylor, op. cit. note 15.

46 Andritz, Annual Report 2013 (Graz, Austria: 2013), p. 5.

47 Voith Hydro, op. cit. note 35, p. 79.

48 Ibid., p. 82.

49 Alstom, Annual Results - Fiscal Year 2012/13 (Levallois-Perret Cedex: 7 May 2013), http://www.alstom.com/Global/Group/Resources/Documents/Investors%20document/Financial%20 results/2012-2013/Annual%20results/analyst%20presen%20 FY%20may%2013_final-%20screen.pdf.

50 Alstom, "Alstom inaugurates its largest hydropower industrial site in Tianjin, China," press release (Levallois-Perret Cedex: 11 October 2013), http://www.alstom.eom/press-centre/2013/9/alstom-inaugurates-its-largest-hydropower-industrial-site-in-tianjin-china/.

51 Alstom, "Alstom inaugurates its new global hydropower technology centre in Grenoble," press release (Levallois-Perret Cedex: 1 February 2013), http://www.alstom.com/press-centre/2013/2/alstom-inaugurates-its-new-global-hydropower-technology-centre-in-grenoble.

52 Harbin Electric Company Limited, Interim Report 2013 (Harbin, China: August 2013).

53 Taylor, op. cit. note 15.

54 Ibid.