Power Sector

The most significant growth occurred in the power sector, with global capacity exceeding 1,560 GW in 2013, an increase of more than 8% over 2012.31 Hydropower rose by 4% to approximately 1,000 GWi, while other renewables collectively grew nearly 17% to an estimated 560 GW.32 Globally, hydropower and solar PV each accounted for about one-third of renewable power capacity added in 2013, followed closely by wind power (29%).33 For the first time, more solar PV than wind power capacity was added worldwide.34 (See Reference Table R1.)

Around the world, policy support and investment in renewable energy have continued to focus primarily on the electricity sector. Consequently, renewables have accounted for a growing share of electric generation capacity added globally each year.35 In 2013, renewables made up more than 56% of net additions to global power capacity and represented far higher shares of capacity added in several countries around the world.36 In the EU, renewables accounted for the majority of new capacity for the sixth year running.37

By year's end, renewables comprised an estimated 26.4% of the world's power generating capacity.38 This was enough to supply an estimated 22.1% of global electricity, with hydropower providing about 16.4%.39 (See Figure 3.) While renewable capacity continues to rise at a rapid rate from year to year, renewable electricity's share of global generation is increasing more slowly. This is in large part because overall demand keeps rising rapidly, and also because much of the renewable capacity being added is variable.

Even so, variable renewables are achieving high levels of penetration in several countries. For example, throughout 2013, wind power met 33.2% of electricity demand in Denmark and 20.9% in Spain; in Italy, solar PV met 7.8% of total annual electricity demand.40 Hydropower, which provides the single largest share of renewable electricity worldwide, is being used increasingly to balance systems with high shares of variable renewables, sometimes with the aid of pumped storage. (See Hydropower section.) Other non-variable renewables such as geothermal and bio-power can play a similar role and provide significant shares of total electricity in some countries. Geothermal power now accounts for 29% of electricity generation in Iceland, and more than one-fifth in El Salvador and Kenya.41

Figure 3. Estimated Renewable Energy Share of Global Electricity Production, End-2013

Based on renewable generating capacity in operation end-2013. Data do not add up due to rounding.

Source: See Endnote 39 for this section.

i - The GSR 2013 reported a global total of 990 GW of hydropower capacity at the end of 2012; this figure has been revised downward due to better data availability. This adjustment also affects the global figure for total renewable power capacity. In addition, global hydropower data and thus total renewable energy statistics in this report reflect an effort to remove capacity of pure pumped storage from the totals. For more information, see Methodological Notes, page 142.

Figure 4. Renewable Power Capacities in World, EU-28, BRICS, and Top Six Countries, 2013

Not including hydropower

Source: See Endnote 49 for this section.

Bio-, geothermal-, and hydropower have long been cost competitive in areas where good resources are available, and this is true for a growing number of technologies in an increasing number of locations.42 The levelised costs of generation from onshore wind and, particularly, solar PV have fallen sharply over the past five years, while average global costs from coal and natural gas generation have increased due to higher capital costs and feedstock prices.43 As a result, an increasing number of wind and solar power projects are being built without public financial support, especially in Latin America, but also in Africa, the Middle East, and elsewhere.44

In response to these changing economics, distributed renewables are starting to challenge traditional electric utility business models, prompting utilities in some countries to push back and call for reduced policy support for renewable electricity.45 At the same time, many utilities from Asia to Europe to North America are investing in wind, solar PV, and other renewables, in addition to hydropower.46 (See Sidebar 7, page 80.)

By the end of 2013, China, the United States, Brazil, Canada, and Germany remained the top countries for total installed renewable electric capacity.47 China was home to about 24% of the world's renewable power capacity, including an estimated 260 GW of hydropower.48 The top countries for non-hydro capacity were again China, the United States, and Germany, followed by Spain, Italy, and India.49 (See Figure 4 and Reference Table R2.)

Among the world's top 20 countries for non-hydro renewable power capacity, those with the highest capacity amounts per inhabitant were all in Europe. Denmark had a clear lead and was followed by Germany, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden.i 50 Considering investment in new renewable power (and fuels) relative to annual GDP, top countries included Uruguay, Mauritius, Costa Rica, South Africa, and Nicaragua.51

While the BRICSii nations together led for total capacity of all renewables (thanks primarily to China), accounting for approximately 38%, the EU still had the most non-hydro installed capacity of any region at the end of 2013, with about 42% of the global total.52 However, the EU's share of global renewable power capacity is declining as renewable electricity markets outside of Europe expand. (See Top Five Countries Table on page 16 for other rankings.)

i - While there are other countries with high per capita amounts of renewable capacity and high shares of renewable electricity, the GSR focusses here on the top 20 countries for total installed capacity of non-hydro renewables. (See Reference Table R13 for country shares of electricity from renewable sources.)

ii - The combined economies of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.

Highlights for 2013 include:

  • China's new renewable power capacity surpassed new fossil and nuclear capacity for the first time.53 All renewables accounted for more than 20% (> 1,000 TWh) of China's electricity generation.54 In the European Union, renewable power installations represented 72% of new electric capacity, up from 70% in 2012.55 This is in stark contrast to a decade earlier, when conventional fossil generation accounted for 80% of new capacity in the EU-27 plus Norway and Switzerland.56
  • In the United States, the share of renewable generation rose to nearly 12.9% (12.2% in 2012), despite a drop in hydropower output and competition from cheap natural gas from shale.57 By contrast, the share of net electricity generation from coal declined nearly 19% over the period 2008-2013.58
  • Spain became the first country to generate more electricity from wind power (20.9% of total) than from any other source for the entire year.59
  • India added more than 4 GW of renewable capacity for a total of about 70.5 GW.60 While hydropower represented most of the total (62%), solar PV and wind accounted for almost 70% of 2013 renewable additions.61 Yet India's power capacity is expanding rapidly, and renewables made up less than 17% of total additions from all sources during 2013.62
  • Wind power was excluded from one of Brazil's auctions because it was pricing all other generation sources out of the market.63 By year's end, Brazil had 3.5 MW of commissioned wind power capacity, and more than 10 GW of additional capacity was under contract.64
  • Even as global investment in solar PV declined nearly 22% relative to 2012, new capacity installations increased by more than 32%.65
  • By early 2013, at least 18 countries generated more than 10% of their electricity with non-hydro renewable resources, up from an estimated 8 countries in 2010. These included Denmark, El Salvador, Kenya, Lithuania, and Austria.66
  • Many communities and regions around the world have targeted, or already successfully transitioned to, 100% renewable electricity.67 Djibouti, Scotland, and the small-island state of Tuvalu, for example, aim to derive 100% of their electricity from renewable sources by 2020.68

Around the world, households and businesses are opting increasingly for "green" offerings from traditional utilities and new energy providers, voluntarily buying renewable energy (most commonly electricity) that is produced outside of, or beyond, regulatory requirements. Germany remains one of the world's leaders for voluntary renewable power purchasing. Its market grew from 0.8 million residential customers in 2006 to 4.9 million in 2012, or 12.5% of all private households in the country. In 2011, they purchased 15 terawatt-hours (TWh) of green power, and commercial customers bought a further 10.3 TWh.i 69 Other major European green power markets include Austria, Belgium (Flanders), Finland, Hungary, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, although the market share in these countries remains below German levels.70

Green power markets also exist in Australia, Canada, Japan, South Africa, and the United States.71 More than half of U.S. electricity customers have the option to purchase green power directly from their local utility, and 47 of the 50 states (plus the District of Columbia) have utilities and/or competitive electricity suppliers that offer a green power option. In 2012, total U.S. retail green power sales exceeded 48 TWh (about 1.3% of total U.S. electricity sales).72

Major industrial and commercial customers in Europe, India, Mexico, and the United States continued to turn to renewables to reduce their energy costs while increasing the reliability of their energy supply. Many set ambitious renewable energy targets in 2013, installed and operated their own renewable power systems, or signed purchase agreements to buy directly from renewable energy project operators, bypassing utilities.73

Community-owned and co-operative projects also increased in numbers in Australia, Japan, and Thailand, as well as in North America and several countries in Europe.74 Denmark has a long history of co-operatively owned projects; in Germany, almost half of renewable power capacity was citizen owned as of 2013, and about 20 million Germans lived in so-called 100% renewable energy regions.75

The year saw expanded installations of small-scale, distributed renewable systems for remote locations as well as grid-connected systems where consumers prefer to generate at least a portion of their electricity on-site.76 Technology advances are enabling the establishment of micro- and mini-grids that rely significantly, if not entirely, on renewable energy. Micro-grids are emerging in developed countries, in particular, where they are generally connected to an overlying central grid.ii In developing countries, mini-grids are playing an increasingly important role in providing electricity access to remote communities.77 (See Sidebar 8 in GSR 2013.)

i - Note that part of this growth is also due to voluntary decisions of suppliers, generally for marketing purposes, to procure renewable electricity for all of their residential customers. Customers of such suppliers account for up to 20% of the voluntarygreen power market in Germany. (See Endnote 69 for this section.)

ii - A micro-grid is a small-scale power grid, with its own power resources, generation, loads, and definable boundaries that can operate independently of, or in conjunction with, an area's main power grid. It can be intended as back-up power or to bolster main grid power during periods of heavy demand. It is often used to reduce costs, enhance reliability, and/or as a means of incorporating renewable energy.

31 See Reference Table Rl and related endnote for details and references.

32 Ibid.

33 Based on total additions of approximately 120 GW, with an estimated 40 GW from hydropower, more than 39 GW from solar PV, and more than 35 GW from wind. For details and references see Reference Table Rl, Market and Industry Trends section, and related endnotes.

34 Based on estimates ranging from at least 36.9 GW to most likely 39-40 GW of solar PV added during 2013 from Masson, op. cit. note 1, from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 1, from EPIA, Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2014-2018, op. cit. note 1, and from FS-UNEP Centre and BNEF, op. cit. note 16; from estimates of 35.3-36.1 GW of wind power capacity added during 2013 from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, from World Wind Energy Association (WWEA), World Wind Energy Report 2013 (Bonn: 2014), and from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1, Executive Summary; from data on global solar PV capacity additions back to 1990, from Paul Maycock, PV News, various years, and from EPIA, Market Report 2013, op. cit. note 1; and from data on net global wind capacity additions back to 1981 from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, and from Janet L. Sawin, "The Role of Government in the Development and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies: Wind Power in the United States, California, Denmark and Germany, 1970-2000," Doctoral Dissertation, Fletcher School, Tufts University, September 2001.

35 Growing share based on data from REN21, Renewables Global Status Report, previous editions, and from ElA and BNEF data, provided in FS-UNEP Centre and BNEF, op. cit. note 16, p. 31.

36 Figure of 56% based on a total of approximately 120 GW of renewable capacity added, as noted in this report; on 4 GW of nuclear power capacity added and 5.4 GW of capacity permanently shutdown, for a net reduction of 1.4 GW, from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) PRIS Database, http://www.iaea.org/pris/ viewed 11 May 2014; net increase in fossil generating capacity of an estimated 95 GW, from FS-UNEP Centre and BNEF, op. cit. note 16, p. 30. Based on these data, total global net capacity additions in 2013 were estimated to be about 213.6 GW, putting the renewable share at just over 56%. Highershares in several countries based on the following: IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 1; New Zealand from Ralph Sims, Massey University, New Zealand, personal communication with REN21, 30 March 2014; countries in Europe based on the fact that 72% of newly installed EU capacity was renewable, from European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), Wind in Power 2013 European Statistics (Brussels: February 2014), p. 7, http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/files/library/publications/statistics/EWEA_Annual_Statistics_2013.pdf; France decommissioned fossil capacity and adding no nuclear power capacity, therefore adding only renewables, per Romain Zissler, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), personal communication with REN21, 15 April 2014; nearly all capacity added in Italy was renewable, from Alessandro Marangoni, Althesys Strategic Consultants, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2014.

37 EWEA, op. cit. note 36, p. 7

38 Renewable share of total global electric generating capacity is based on renewable total of 1,560 GW and on total global electric capacity in the range of 5,898.3 GW. Estimated total world capacity for end-2013 is based on 2011 total of 5,456 GW, from IEA, World Energy Outlook 2013, op. cit. note 1, p. 574; on about 116 GW of renewable power capacity added in 2012, from REN21, op. cit. note 1, and adjusted data for 2012; on 109 GW net additions of fossil fuel-fired capacity in 2012, from FS-UNEP Centre and BNEF, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2013 (Frankfurt: 2013); on a net increase in nuclear power capacity of 3.7 GW in 2012, from IAEA, cited in "Nuclear Power Capacity Grew Again in 2012: IAEA," Agence France Presse, 5 March 2013; and on a net total of 213.6 GW of global power capacity added from all sources in 2013 (see Endnote 36 for details).

39 Estimates based on the following sources: Total global electricity generation in 2013 is estimated at 22,921 TWh, based on 22,504 TWh in 2012 from BP, op. cit. note 1, and an estimated 1.85% growth in global electricity generation for 2013. The growth rate is based on the weighted average actual change in total generation for the following countries (which together account for two-thirds of global generation in 2012): United States (+0.26% net generation), EU-28 (-4.73% gross generation), Russia (-0.85%), India (+4.70%), China (+7.50%), and Brazil (+2.58%). Sources for 2011 and 2012 electricity generation are: EIA, Monthly Energy Review, April 2014, Table 7.2a (Electricity Net Generation); European Commission, Eurostat database, http://epp.eurostat. ec.europa.eu; System Operator of the Unified PowerSystem of Russia, http://www.so-ups.ru; Government of India, Ministry of Power, Central Electricity Authority (CEA), "Monthly Generation Report," http://www.cea.nic.in/monthly_gen.html; China Electricity Council (CEC), "CEC Released the Country's Electricity Supply and Demand Analysis and Forecasting 2014 Annual Report," 25 February 2014, http://www.cec.org.cn/guihuayutongji/gongxufenxi/dianligongxufenxi/2014-02-25/117272.html (using Google Translate); National Operator of the Electrical System of Brazil (ONS), http://www.ons.org.br/historico/geracao_energia. aspx. Hydropowergeneration in 2013 is estimated at 3,775 TWh, based on inputfrom IHA, op. cit. note 1, from IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op. cit. note 1;,and from a projection based on 2012 hydropower output of 3,673 TWh from BP, op. cit. note 1, as well as observed weighted average year-on-year change in output (+2.8%) for top producing countries (China, Brazil, Canada, the United States, EU-27, Russia, India, and Norway), which together accounted for over 70% of global hydropower output: United States (-2.6% in annual output), Canada (+3.0%), EU-27 (+12.2% for January through September), Norway (-8.1%), Brazil (-6.0%), Russia (+12.7%), India (+13.2%) for facilities larger than 25 MW), and China (+4.7%). The combined hydropower output of these countries was up by about 2.8% relative to 2012. Hydropowergeneration by country: United States from EIA, op. cit. this note; Canada from Statistics Canada, http://www5.statcan. gc.ca; EU-27 from European Commission, op. cit. this note; Norway from Statistics Norway, http://www.ssb.no; Brazil from ONS, op. cit. this note; System Operator of the Unified Power System of Russia, op. cit. this note; Government of India, op. cit. this note; CEC, op. cit. this note. Non-hydro renewable generation of 1,311 TWh was based on 2013 year-end generating capacities shown in Reference Table R1 and representative capacityfactors in Endnote 1, or other specific estimates as detailed by technology in Section 2. Figure 3 based on sources in this endnote.

40 Denmark met 33.2% of electricity demand with wind power, based on 11.1 billion kWh of wind powergeneration in 2013 and 33.5 billion kWh of total electricity consumption, from Carsten Vittrup, "2013 Was a Record-Setting Yearfor Danish Wind Power," Energinet.DK, 15 January 2014, http://www.energinet.dk/EN/EI/Nyheder/Sider/2013-var-et-rekordaar-for-dansk-vindkraft. aspx; Spain from REE, per Asociación Empresarial Eólica (AEE), "Spain Was in 2013 the First Country Where Wind Energy Was the First Source of Electricity for an Entire Year," press release (Madrid: 15 January 2014), http://www.aeeolica.org/en/new/spain-was-in-2013-the-first-country-where-wind-energy-was-the-first-source-of-electricity-for-an-entire-year/; Italy from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 1. Other countries meeting large shares included Australia; wind met 38% of South Australia's power demand and 8% of national demand during August 2013, from Clean Energy Council, "August Windy Enough to Light Up 155,000 Homes," 4 September 2013, http://www.cleanenergycouncil.org.au/media-centre/media-releases/september-2013/130904-windy-august. html; Portugal occasionally reaches 90% of electricity from wind power, from Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 14 April 2014; Michael Goggin, "US Wind Energy Output Breaks Records," Renewable Energy World, 4 April 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/04/us-wind-energy-output-breaks-records; RenewableUK, "Record Breaking Month for Wind Energy," press release (London: 2 January 2014), http://www.renewableuk.com/en/news/press-releases. cfm/2014-01-02-record-breaking-month-for-wind-energy; Note that renewable energy provided 70% of Portugal's electricity supply for the first quarter of 2013; hydropower and wind power were the largest contributors, with hydro providing 37% and wind 27%, from Peter Bronski, "Is a High Renewables Future Really Possible? Part 2," RMI Outlet, 23 May 2013, http://blog.rmi.org/blog_05_23_2013_is_a_high_renewables_energy_really_possible_part_two.

41 Orkutölur2013, Orkustofnun (Energy Statistics in Iceland 2013) (Reykjavik: April 2014), http://www.os.is/gogn/os-onnur-rit/orkutolur_2013-islenska.pdf; BP, "Renewables in this Review," http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy-2013/review-by-energy-type/renewable-energy/renewables-in-this-review.html, viewed 11 May 2014.

42 IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2013, op. cit. note 1, Executive Summary, p. 5; Jason Channell, Timothy Lam, and Shahriar Pourreza, Shale & Renewables: A Symbiotic Relationship (London: Citi Research, September 2012); BNEF, "Australia LCOE Update: Wind Cheaperthan Coal and Gas," Asia & Oceania Clean Energy Research Note, 31 January 2013; Sourabh Sen, "Assessing Risk and Cost in India: Solar's Trajectory Compared to Coal," Renewable Energy World, 17 April 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/04/risk-and-cost-solars-trajectory-compared-to-coal; Sarasin, Working Towards a Cleaner and Smarter Power Supply Prospects for Renewables in the Energy Revolution (Basel, Switzerland: December 2012), p. 9; Bridge to India, India Solar Compass, April 2013, p. 26; RENA, Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012: An Overview (Abu Dhabi: January 2013), http://costing.irena.org/media/2769/0verview_Renewable-Power-Generation-Costs-in-2012.pdf; IEA, Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2013), http://www.iea.org/publications/tcep_web.pdf. Note that offshore wind levelised costs increased between the second quarter of 2009 and the first quarter of 2013, as project developers moved farther from shore and into deeperwaters, and some CSP and geothermal power technologies also saw cost increases during this period, from FS-UNEP Centre and BNEF, op. cit. note 38. Other renewables are becoming cost competitive in several west African countries, including Burkina Faso, Liberia, and The Gambia, per Quansah, op. cit. note 18.

43 FS-UNEP Centre and BNEF, op. cit. note 16, pp. 36-37. According to BNEF, conventional generation sources general saw per MWh costs increase over the period from early 2009 to early 2014, with the exception of gas-fired generation in the United States, and capital costs for coal- and gas-fired and nuclear power plants has generally increased as well, reflecting materials and labour costs.

44 Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East without any subsidy support from ibid., pp. 36-37, 41-43; many renewables are already competitive relative to new fossil fuel plants, and wind and solar PV have reached or are approaching competitiveness without generation-based incentives in a number of markets, per IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2013, op. cit. note 1, p. 5; Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 15 January 2014.

45 Ernesto Macías Galán, Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE), personal communication with REN21, 15 January 2014; Sven Teske, Greenpeace International, personal communication with REN21, 13 January 2014; Clint Wilder, "2014: The Maturation of Clean Tech," Renewable Energy World, 13 January 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/01/2014-the-maturation-of-clean-tech; Giles Parkinson, "Australian utilities erect barricades in bid to halt solar storm," Renew Economy, 23 October 2013, http://reneweconomy.com.au/2013/australian-utilities-erect-barricades-in-bid-to-halt-solar-storm-91715; Europe from Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes, BEE, personal communication with REN21, 12 January 2014; Marc Gunther, "With Rooftop Solar on Rise, U.S. Utilities Are Striking Back," Yale Environment360, 3 September 2013, 46 See, for example, Mark Osborne, "Hareon Solar Teaming with Shanghai Electric Power on 800 MW of PV Projects," PV tech, 13 March 2014, http://www.pv-tech.org/news/hareon_solar_teaming_with_shanghai_electric_power_on_800mw_of_pv_projects; "How to lose half a trillion euros," The Economist, October 2013, #; Gunther, op. cit. note 45; Ron Pernick, Clint Wilder, and James Belcher, Clean Energy Trends 2014, March 2014, p. 10, http://cleanedge.com/reports/Clean-Energy-Trends-2014.

47 Rankings were determined by gathering data for the world's top countries for hydropower, wind, solar PV, CSP, biomass, and geothermal power capacity. China based on 260 GW hydropower (not including pure pumped storage capacity) from CEC, op. cit. note 39; 91,412 MW installed by the end of 2013, from Chinese Wind Energy Association (CWEA), provided by Shi Pengfei, CWEA, personal communication with REN21, 14 March 2014, and from GWEC, op. cit. note 1; almost 20 GW of solar PV based on data from China National Energy Administration, provided by Masson, op. cit. note 1, from EPIA, Global Market Outlookfor Photovoltaics 2014-2018, op. cit. note 1, and from Masson, op. cit. note 1; 6.2 GW of bio-power (excluding 2.3 GW of incineration) from China National Renewable Energy Centre, "CNREC 2013 Activities within China National Renewable Energy Centre" (Beijing: March 2014); 26.6 MW geothermal from GEA, op. cit. note 5, and from CNREC, op. cit. this note; 10 MW of CSP from Geng Dan, "Review and Outlook on China Renewable Energy," presentation for REvision2014: Global Energy Turnarounds and Japan's Path, Tokyo, 25 February 2014, http://jref.or.jp/en/images/pdf/20140225/Geng_Dan_REvision2014_Session1_2.pdf; also from Luis Crespo, ESTELA, personal communication with REN21, February 2014; and small amounts of ocean energy capacity. United States based on 78.4 GW hydropower from 2012 capacity from EIA, Electric Power Annual, Table 4.3 Existing Capacity by Energy Source, http://www.eia.gov/electricity/annual/html/epa_04_03.html; projected net additions in 2013 of 201 MW from idem, Table 4.5 Planned Generating Capacity Changes by Energy Source, 2013-2017, http://www.eia.gov/electricity/annual/html/epa_04_05.html; 61,110 MW of wind from American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), "U.S. Capacity & Generation," in U.S. Wind Industry Annual Market Report 2013 (Washington, DC: 10 April 2014), http://www.awea.org/AnnualMarketReport. aspx?ltemNumber=6305&RDtoken=35392&userID=; 12.1 GW of solar PV from GTM Research and U.S. Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA), U.S. Solar Market Insight Report: 2013 Year-in Review (Washington, DC: 2014), Executive Summary, http://www.seia.org/research-resources/solar-market-insight-report-2013-year-review; 15.8 GW bio-powerfrom U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Office of Energy Projects Energynf restructure Update for December 2013, https://www.ferc.gov/legal/staff-reports/2013/dec-energy-infrastructure.pdf; 3,442 MW of geothermal powerfrom GEA, op. cit. this note; 882 MW of CSP from Morse, op. cit. note 5; "CSP World Map," op. cit. note 5; "CSP Today Global Tracker," op. cit. note 5; SEIA, "Solar Energy Facts: 2013 Year in Review," 5 March 2014, http://www.seia. org/sites/default/files/YIR%202013%20SMI%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf; SEIA, "Major Solar Projects in the United States: Operating, Under Construction, or Under Development," 6 March 2014, http://www.seia.org/sites/default/files/resources/Major%20 Solar%20Projects%20List%203.6.14.pdf; "NextEra dedicates 250 MW Genesis CSP Plant," Solar Server, 25 April 2014, http://www.solarserver.com/solar-magazine/solar-news/current/2014/kwl7/nextera-dedicates-250-mw-genesis-csp-plant.html; Abengoa Solar, "Mojave Solar Project," http://www.abengoasolar.com/web/en/nuestras_plantas/plantas_en_construccion/estados_unidos/; "NextEra dedicates 250 MW Genesis CSP plant," SolarServer, http://www.solarserver.com/solar-magazine/solar-news/current/2014/kwl7/nextera-dedicates-250-mw-genesis-csp-plant.html; U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), "Concentrating Solar Power Projects: Solana Generating Station," 17 March 2014, http://www.nrel.gov/csp/solarpaces/project_detail.cfm/projectID=23. Brazil based on 85.7 GW of hydropowerfrom National Agency for Electrical Energy (ANEEL), "Fiscalização dos serviços de geração," February 2013, http://www.aneel.gov. br/area.cfm?idArea=37; 80 MW of solar PV from "20131106_PVcapacity_2009-2012," unpublished database provided by Christopher Werner, Hanergy, personal communication with REN21, 15 October 2013; 11,423 MW of bio-powerfrom ANEEL, 2013, provided by Maria Beatriz Monteiro, CENBIO, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2014; 3,456 MW of wind from GWEC, op. cit. note 5; Francine Martins Pisni, Associagao Brasileira de Energia Eólica (ABEEólica), communication with REN21 via Suani Coelho, CENBIO, 29 April 2014. Canada based on 76.2 GW of hydropowerfrom thefollowing: Canadian Hydropower Association, communication with REN21, February 2014, and Hydropower Equipment Association (HEA)data based on its members' aggregated input, personal communication with REN21, April 2014; also on 7,803 MW wind from Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA), "Installed Capacity," http://canwea.ca/wind-energy/installed-capacity/, viewed 11 April 2014, and GWEC, op. cit. note 1; 1,284 MW solar PVfrom IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 1; 2.5 GW of bio-powerfrom Canadian Industrial Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Centre, Simon Fraser University, provided by Farid Bensebaa, National Resource Council Canada, personal communication with REN21, 12 May 2014; 20 MW of ocean from IEA Implementing Agreement on Ocean Energy Systems (IEA-OES), "Ocean Energy in the World," http://www.ocean-energy-systems.org/ocean_energy_in_the_world/, and from IEA-OES, Annual Report 2012 (Lisbon: 2012), Table 6.1, http://www.ocean-energy-systems.org/oes_reports/annual_reports/. Germany based on 5.6 GW of hydropower, 35.9 GW of solar PV, 34.7 GW total installed wind capacity, and 8.1 GW of bio-power from Arbeitsgruppe Erneuerbare Energien-Statistik (AGEE-Stat), Erneuerbare Energien im Jahr 2013 (Berlin: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie(BMWi), 2014), http://www.bmwi.de/BMWi/Redaktion/PDF/A/agee-stat-bericht-ee-2013,property=pdf,bereich=bmwi2012,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf; 28.5 MWgeothermal powerfrom GEA, op. cit. this note.

48 China share based on data and references provided elsewhere in this section; 260 GW of hydropower from CEC, "CEC Publishes the Demand/Supply Analysis and Forecast of China Power Industry 2014," 19 March 2014, http://english.cec.org.cn/No.105.1534.htm.

49 China, United States, and Germanyfrom Endnote47, all references. Spain based on 17.1 GW of hydropowerfrom REE, op. cit. note 5, updated March 2014; 22,959 GW of wind from GWEC, op. cit. note 1; 5,566 MW solar PV from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 1; 981 MW bio-power, and 2,300 MW CSP from REE, op. cit. note 5, updated March 2014. Italy based on 18.2 GW hydropowerfrom Gestore Servizi Energetici (GSE), "Impianti afonti rinnovaili in Italia: Prima stima 2012," 28 February 2013, and no additions identified for 2013; 4 GW of bio-power is preliminary data from GSE, provided by Noemi Magnanini, GSE, personal communication with REN21, 16 May 2014; 8,551 MW of wind from EWEA, op. cit. note 36; 17,600 MW of solar PV from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 1; 900 MW of geothermal powerfrom GEA, op. cit. note 5; and 5 MW (demonstration) of CSP from Crespo, op. cit. note 5. India based on 43.7 GW of hydropowerfrom CEA, "Installed capacity as of 31 December 2013," http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/inst_capacity/decl3.pdf, and idem, "List of H.E. Stations in the Country with Station Capacity Above 25 MW," http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/hydro/list_he__stations.pdf; capacity additions in 2013 (>25 MW) of 554 MW from CEA, "Executive Summary of the Power Sector (monthly)," http://www.cea.nic.in/exesum_cood. html; installed capacity in 2013 (<25 MW) of 3,763.15 MW from Government of India, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), "Physical Progress (Achievements)," http://www.mnre. gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/, viewed 18 January 2014; capacity additions in 2013 (<25 MW) of 267 MW based on difference of year-end 2013 figure (above) and year-end 2012 figure (3,496.15 MW)from MNRE, Annual Report 2012-2013 (New Delhi: undated), Table 3.7, http://www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/publications/annual-report-2; 20,150 MW of wind from GWEC, op. cit. note 1; 2,319 MW of solar PVfrom IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 1; about 4.4 GW of bio-powerfrom MNRE, "Physical Progress (Achievements)," op. cit. this note. Figure 4 based on sources in this note and on the following sources for EU-28 and BRICS: EU-28 based on 123.5 GW hydropower in 2012 (although this includes some mixed pumped storage plants for Austria), from International Journal on Hydropower& Dams(IJHD), Hydropower & Darns World Atlas 2013 (Wallington, Surrey, U.K.: 2013), and from hydropower data provided in previous notes for Germany, Italy and Spain; 117,289 MW of wind from EWEA, op. cit. note 36; 80 GW of solar PV from EPIA, Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2014-2018, op. cit. note 1; and from Masson, op. cit. note 1; 34.5 GW of bio-powerfrom thefollowing: AGEE-Stat, op. cit. note 47; Luca Benedetti, Energy Studies and Statistics, GSE, Rome, personal communication with REN21, 16 May 2014; REE, op. cit. note 5, updated March 2014; Directorate General for Energy and Geology (DGEG), provided by Lara Ferreira, Portuguese Renewable Energy Association, personal communication with REN21, May 2014; U.K. Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), Statistics, Energy Trends Section 6: Renewables, Department of Energy and Climate Change, March 2014 (updated 10 April 2014), p. 6, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/295356/6_Renewables.pdf; Réseau de Transport d'Électricité, (RTE), Bilan Électrique 2013 (Paris: 2014), p. 21; http://www.rte-france.com/uploads/Mediatheque_docs/vie_systeme/annuelles/Bilan_electrique/bilan_electrique_2013.pdf; Government Offices of Sweden, "Sweden's second progress report on the development of renewable energy pursuant to Article 22 of Directive 2009/28/EC," 23 December 2013, http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/reports/2013_en.htm; E-Control Austria, "Entwicklung der anerkannten 'sonstigen' Ökostromanlagen (exclusive Kleinwasskraft) von 2002-2013," http://www.e-control.at/portal/page/portal/medienbibliothek/oeko-energie/dokumente/pdfs/Entwicklung%20anerkannter%20 %C3%96kostromanlagen%202002-2013_Tabelle_Stand%20 Mai%202014.pdf, updated May 2014; preliminary data from IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2013, op. cit. note 1; 960 MW of geothermal from GEA, op. cit. note 5; 2,300 MW of CSP from REE, op. cit. note 5, updated March 2014; 241 MW of ocean energy from IEA-OES, Annual Report 2011 (Lisbon: OES Secretary, 2011), Table 6.1, p. 122. In addition to references for Brazil, India, and China, BRICS from the following: Russia based on 46.7 GW of hydropower from System Operator of the Unified Energy System of Russia, Reporton the Unified Energy System in 2013 (Moscow: undated), http://www.so-ups.ru/fileadmin/files/company/reports/disclosure/2014/ups_rep2013.pdf; 15 MW wind from EWEA, op. cit. note 36; 1.5 GW bio-power from IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2013, op. cit. note 1; 97 GW geothermal power from GEA, op. cit. note 5; and a small amount of ocean energy capacity. South Africa based on about 680 MW of hydropower(not including pumped storage), from Hydro4Africa, "African Hydropower Database—South Africa," http://hydro4africa. net/HP_database/country.php?country=South%20Africa, viewed 9 May 2014; 102 MW of wind from WWEA, op. cit. note 34; 30 MW solar PV from EScience Associates, Urban-Econ Development Economists, and from Chris Ahlfeldt, The Localisation Potential of Photovoltaics (PV) and a Strategy to Support Large Scale Roll-Out in South Africa, prepared for the South African Department of Trade and Industry, March 2013, p. x, http://www.sapvia.co.za; 25 MW bio-power based on IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2013, op. cit. note 1.

50 Based on data and sources in previous endnotes in this section for Germany and Spain, population data for 2012 from World Bank, "World development indicators- Population (total)," 2014, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL, viewed 7 March 2014. Sources also include the following: Denmark based on 9 M W of hydropowerfrom IJHD, op. cit. note49; 4,772 MW of wind power from EWEA, op. cit. note 36; 532 MW of solar PVfrom IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 1; 1.6 GW of bio-power is a projection from 2013 from EA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2013, op. cit. note 1, p. 75, based on 1.4 GW in 2012 from idem. Portugal based on 5 GW of hydropowerfrom IJHD, op. cit. note 49; 4,724 MW of wind power from EWEA, op. cit. note 36; 284 MW of solar PVfrom IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 1; 2,591 MW of bio-powerfrom DGEG, op. cit. note 49. Sweden based on 16.2 GW of hydropowerfrom IJHD, op. cit. note 49; 4,470 MW of wind powerfrom EWEA, op. cit. note 36; 43 MW of solar PV from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 1; about 4.3 GW of bio-power based on 4,055 MW in 2012, up from 3,401 MW in 2011, from Government Offices of Sweden, op. cit. note 49, and on additions in 2013 including: 180 MW (CHP) from "Biomass Power Plants in Sweden," Power plants around the world, based on data from Platts UDI World Electric Power Plants Data Base, updated 27 April 2014, http://www.industcards.com/biomass-sweden.htm, and a CHP plant (20 MW electric/60 MW heat), from Fortum, "Fortum inaugurates new waste-to-energy combined heatand power plant in Sweden," press release (Stockholm: 29 November 2013), http://www.fortum.com/en/mediaroom/pages/fortum-inaugurates-new-waste-to-energy-combined-heat-and-power-plant-in-sweden.aspx

51 Based on investment data in FS-UNEP Centre and BNEF, op. cit. note 16, and on 2012 gross domestic product (GDP) in current U.S. dollars, from World Bank, "World development indicators - GDP (current US$)", updated April 2014, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDRMKTRCD.

52 Based on data and sources in previous endnotes in this section, and global data including the following: 1,000 GW of hydropower from HA, op. cit. note 1; from preliminary estimates in IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op. cit. note 1; and from HEA, op. cit. note 47; 318 GW of wind from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, from WWEA, op. cit note 34, and from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1, Executive Summary; 139 GW of solar PVfrom IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 1, from Masson, op. cit. note 1; 88 GW of bio-power based on based on 83 GW of capacity at end-2012 (see GSR 2013), preliminary data from IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op. cit. note 1, and national level data from the following: FERC, op. cit. note 47; AGEE-Stat, op. cit. note 47; CNREC, op. cit. note47; ANEEL, op. cit. note47; IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2013, op. cit. note 1; REE, op. cit. note 5, updated March 2014; MNRE, "Physical Progress (Achievements)," op. cit. note49; DGEG, op. cit. note48; DECC, op. cit. note49, p. 6; ISEP, Renewables Japan Status Report 2014 (Tokyo: March 2014) (in Japanese), data provided by Hironao Matsubara, ISEP, personal communication with REN21, 23 April 2014; Benedetti, op. cit. note 49; Government Offices of Sweden, op. cit. note 49; 12 GW of geothermal from GEA, op. cit. note 5; 3.4 GW of CSPfrom REN21, op. cit. note 1; Crespo, op. cit. note 5; Fred Morse, Morse Associates, Inc., personal communication with REN21, February and May 2014; "CSP World Map," op. cit. note 5; "CSP Today Global Tracker," op. cit. note 5; NREL, "Concentrating Solar Power Projects," http://www.nrel.gov/csp/solarpaces/; SEIA, "Solar Energy Facts: 2013 Year in Review," op. cit. note 47; SEIA, "Major Solar Projects in the United States: Operating, Under Construction, or Under Development," op. cit. note 47; "NextEra dedicates 250 MW Genesis CSP Plant," op. cit. note 47; Abengoa Solar, "Mojave Solar Project," op. cit. note 47; and 0.5 GW of ocean energy from OES, Annual Report 2012 (Lisbon: 2012), Table 6.1, http://www.ocean-energy-systems.org/oes_reports/annual_reports/2012_annual_report/; OES, Annual Report 2013 (Lisbon: 2013), Table 6.2, http://www.ocean-energy-systems.org/documents/82577_oes_annual_report_2013.pdf/; IEA, op. cit. note 5, p. 179, and other sources provided in Ocean Energy section.

53 CEC, op. cit. note39; FS-UNEPCentreand BNEF, op. cit. note 16, p. 25.

54 More than 20% from Geng Dan, op. cit. note 47. Note that electricity generation from wind power was up 36.3% and from solar PV up 143% over 2012, from CEC, op. cit. note 39.

55 EWEA, op. cit. note 36, p. 6.

56 Unionof the Electricity Industry-EURELECTRIC, Utilities: Powerhouses of Innovation (Brussels: 2013), p. 14, http://www.eurelectric.org/media/79178/utilties_powerhouse_of_innovation_full_report_final-2013-104-0001-01-e.pdf. In 2013, total fossil power capacity declined by 11 GW due to decommissioning, whereas total renewable capacity increased by more than 24 GW, based on 35,181 MW of gross power capacity additions, 21,834 MW of capacity decommissioned (of which 10,146 MW was natural gas; 7,723 MW was coal; 2,792 MW was fuel oil; and the remainder a combination of biomass, wind power, hydropower, and waste), and an estimated 25,450 MW of renewable capacity from EWEA, op. cit. note 36, p. 6.

57 Hydropower output was down 2.6% over the year; non-hydro renewables represented just under half of total renewable output, from EIA, Monthly Energy Review, March 2014, Table 7.2a "Electricity Net Generation: Total (All Sectors)," p. 95, http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/previous.cfm.

58 Coal's share was down 18.9% based on all electricity generation in the United States, including the electric power sector and other sectors, from ibid.

59 Sofia Martinez, Instituto para la Diversificacióny Ahorro de la Energia (IDAE), Spain, personal communication with REN21, 7 April 2014. Wind generated 20.9% versus nuclear's 20.8%, according to advance report of the system operator REE, op. cit. note 40.

60 Capacity added based on nearly 0.4 GW of bio-power capacity from MNRE, "Physical Progress (Achievements)," op. cit. note 49; 554 MW of large-scale hydropower (>25 MW)from CEA, Executive Summary of the PowerSector (monthly), at www.cea.nic.in/exesum_cood.html; 267 MW of small-scale hydropower based on difference of year-end 2013 figure (above) and year-end 2012 figure (3,496.15 MW) from MNRE, Annual Report 2012-2013, op. cit. note 49, Table 3.7; 1,115 MW of solar PVfrom IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 1; 50 MW of CSP from Jenny Muirhead, "MEN A Shows Patience Towards Delay in CSP Projects," Weekly Intelligence Brief: July lb-July 22, CSP Today, 22 July 2013, http://social.csptoday.com/markets/weekly-intelligence-brief-july-15-%E2%80%93-july-22; 1,729 MW of wind from GWEC, op. cit. note 1. Total capacity based on about 4.4 GW of bio-powerfrom MNRE, "Physical Progress (Achievements)," op. cit. note 49; total large-scale hydro capacity of 39,893.4 MW from CEA, installed capacity as of 31 December 2013, http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/inst_capacity/decl3.pdf, and http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/hydro/list_he__stations.pdf; small hydropowerfacilities capacity of 3,763.15 MW from MNRE, Annual Report 2012-2013, op. cit. note 49; 2,200 MW of solar PV from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 1; 50 MW of CSPfrom Muirhead, op. cit. this note; and 20,150 MW of wind from GWEC, op. cit. note 1.

61 Based on data in previous endnote.

62 Ibid., and total electric generating capacity added during 2013 of 22,977.9 MW, from CEA, provided by Shirish Garud, TERI, personal communication with REN21, 27 April 2014.

63 Sawyer, op. cit. note 40.

64 Figure of 4.7 GW from Sawyer, op. cit. note 40, 14 April 2014; year-end commissioned capacity from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 24; grid-connected from ANEEL, cited in "Capacidade instalada para energia eolica cresce 20% no Brasil," Jornal da Energia, 1 April 2014, http://www.portalabeeolica.org.br/index.php/noticias/1739-capacidade-instalada-para-energia-eolica-cresce-20-no-brasil. html (using Google Translate).

65 Decline in investment from in FS-UNEP Centre and BNEF, op. cit. note 16; increase in capacity added in 2013 relative to 2012 from Masson, op. cit. note 1, and EPIA, Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2014-2018, op. cit. note 1.

66 Fifteen countries and 8 in 2010 from BP, "Renewable Power," http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy-2013/review-by-energy-type/renewable-energy/renewable-power-.html, viewed 11 May 2014; three additional based on information from BP, "Renewables in this Review," http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy-2013/review-by-energy-type/renewable-energy/renewables-in-this-review, html, viewed 11 May 2014. The countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, El Salvador, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Lithuania, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, from idem, and based on BP, "Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 Workbook," data from "Electricity Generation," and "Other Renewables TWh," http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy-2013.html.

67 Leidreiter, op. cit. note 21; 100ee-Regionen, http://100ee.deenet.org/, viewed 27 April 2014; Institutdezentrale Energietechnologien (IdE) GmbH, 100 RE Regions in Germany, Europe and the World (Kassel: IdE, January 2014), http://100ee.deenet.org/fileadmin/redaktion/100ee/Downloads/broschuere/Good-Practice_Broschuere_lnhalt_Web.pdf. Also, see Energy Agency of Upper Austria, "The Upper Austrian Energy Strategy 'Energy Future 2030'," April 2013, http://www.esv.or.at/english/energy-in-upper-austria/; "Spanish Island to be Fully Powered by Wind, Water," Earthtechling.com, 28 April 2014, http://earthtechling.com/2014/04/spanish-island-to-be-fully-powered-by-wind-water/ See also Reference Tables R12-R15 for targets.

68 Djibouti from "Djibouti—Vers une croissance verte," La Nation ler Quotidien Djiboutien, 5 May 2014, http://www.lanationdj.com/djibouti-vers-croissance-verte/#; Scotland and Tuvalu from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p. 15.

69 Joß Bracker, Oeko-lnstitut e.V. - Institute for Applied Ecology, personal communication with REN21, 17 and 22 April 2014.

70 Ibid; and Hungary, based on domestic hydropower, from M. Prantner, Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, and Energy, personal communication with REN21, 10 April 2014.

71 Australia from "GreenPower," viewed 1 May 2013, http://www.greenpower.gov.au; South Africa from "How to Buy Green Electricity Certificate (GECs)," http://www.capetown.gov.za/en/electricity/GreenElectricity/Pages/Howtopurchasegreenelectricitycertificates. aspx, viewed 15 February 2013; Canada from, for example, Bullfrog Power, http://www.bullfrogpower.com/index.cfm; Japan from United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), "Low Carbon Green Growth Roadmap for Asia and the Pacific. Case Study: Stimulating Consumer Interest in Businesses That Go Green—Japan's Green Power Certificate Scheme," 2012, http://www.unescap.org.

72 The capacity equivalent of this demand isabout 17 GW, from J. Heeterand T. Nicholas, Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data) (Golden, CO: NREL, October 2013), p. v, http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fyl4osti/60210.pdf. Note that total green power market sales in the United States rose 36% from 2010 to 2012. The vast majority comes from wind power, from idem.

73 Ambitious targets from Chris Meehan, "US Companies' Use of Solar Increases40% Over 2012," Renewable Energy World, 23 October 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/blog/post/2013/10/companies-use-of-solar-in-u-s-increases-40-over-2012; for companies installing and operating their own systems see, for example, "Google's Still a Big Fan of Renewable Energy," Renewable Energy World, 18 October 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/10/googles-still-a-big-fan-of-renewable-energy?cmpid=SolarNL-Saturday-October19-2013; "Apple Owns Biggest Private Solar Power System in US," Fox News, 22 March 2013, http://www.foxnews. com/tech/2013/03/22/apple-owns-biggest-private-solar-power-system-in-us/; corporate long-term power purchase agreements, from James Montgomery, "Microsoft vs. Apple Still Making Headlines—in Renewable Energy," Renewable Energy World, 5 November 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/11/microsoft-vs-apple-still-making-headlines-in-renewa ble-energy; Rahul Sachitanand, "Big business groups to push renewable energy space by raising capacity," Economic Times (India), 13 February 2013, http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes. com/2013-02-14/news/37100144_1_renewable-energy-kiran-energy-k-subramanya; Stefan Nicola, "BMW Taps Wind to Guard Profits in Merkel's Nuclear Switch," Renewable Energy World, 19 February 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/02/bmw-taps-wind-to-guard-profits-in-merkels-nuclear-switch; Christopher Martin, "US Auto Factory Chooses Wind EnergyforOn-Site Power Generation," Bloomberg, 10 January 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/01/u-s-auto-factory-chooses-wind-energy-for-on-site-power-generation; Meg Cichon, "IKEA Enters US Wind Marketwith Largest Renewables Investment to Date," Renewable Energy World, 10 April 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/04/ikea-sticks-with-renewables-commitment-makes-largest-investment-to-date; Nathan Paluck, "Mexico's New Opened Energy Market Attracts Renewables," Renewable Energy World, 8 May 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/05/mexicos-newly-opened-energy-market-attracts-renewables?cmpid=WNL-Friday-May9-2014

74 "Australia's First Community-Owned Wind Farm in Daylesford," Castlemaine Independent, 18 October 2013, http://www.castlemaineindependent.org/2013/10/australias-community-owned-wind-farm-daylesford/; "Australian Community Solar Project Begins Operation," PV News, January 2013, p. 11; The Greens, "Unleashing Community-Owned Energy," http://greens.org.au/community-energy, viewed 3 March 2014. In Japan, community-owned power has been important since 2011, and this trend is accelerating, per Tetsu lida, ISEP, personal communication with REN21, 14 January 2014. Thailand from IEA-PVPS, Trends in Photovoltaic Applications: Survey Report of Selected IEA Countries Between 1992 and 2012 (Brussels: 2013). North America from, for example, "CAW Owned and Operated Wind Turbine Begins Operation in Port Elgin, Ontario," 25 March 2013, http://www.caw.ca/en/12003.htm; as of July 2013, the capacity of existing community solar projects in the United States exceeded 14 MW, with an additional 13 MW of projects underdevelopment, from Heeter and Nicholas, op. cit. note 72. Europe based on information available at Communitypower.eu, viewed 20 March 2014; more than 80,000 people in Germany hold shares in collectively run electricity and heat systems; in Denmark, more than 100 wind energy co-operatives have combined ownership of three-fourths of Denmark's turbines, from Anna Leidreiter, "The Last Word: Local Development Through Community-led Renewable Energy," Renewable Energy World, March-April 2013, pp. 54-55; Andrew Williams, "Sharing Renewable Energy: Solar Power Co-operatives in the UK," Renewable Energy World, 8 August 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/08/sharing-renewable-energy-solar-power-co-operatives-in-the-uk.

75 In Denmark, more than 100 wind energy co-operatives have combined ownership of three-fourths of Denmark's turbines, from Leidreiter, op. cit. note 74; Craig Morris, "Citizens Own Half of German Renewable Energy," 29 October 2013, http://energytransition.de/2013/10/citizens-own-half-of-german-renewables/?pk_campaign=nl8. See also Agentur fur Erneuerbare Energien, "Energiegenossenschaften in Deutschland," http://www.unendlich-viel-energie.de/mediathek/grafiken/energiegenossenschaften-in-deutschland, viewed 9 May 2014; and Christoph Burger and Jens Weinmann, "Bioenergy in China: Can China Learn from Germany's Experience?" 10 March 2014, http://knowledge.ckgsb.edu.cn/2014/03/10/technology/bioenergy-in-china/; 20 million Germansfrom Leidreiter, op. cit. note 21; 100ee-Regionen, http://100ee.deenet.org/, viewed 27 April 2014; Institut dezentrale Energietechnologien (IdE), "GmbH, 100 RE Regions in Germany, Europe and the World" (Kassel: IdE, January 2014), http://100ee.deenet.org/fileadmin/redaktion/100ee/Downloads/broschuere/Good-Practice_Broschuere_lnhalt_Web.pdf; "Legambiente presenta Comuni Rinnovabili 2014. Sono 700mila gli impianti da fonti pulite distribuiti nel 100% dei Comuni," Legambiente.it, 7 May 2014, http://www.legambiente.it/contenuti/comunicati/legambiente-presenta-comuni-rinnovabili-2014-sono-700mila-gli-impianti-da-fonti (using Google Translate).

76 See, forexample, A.C. Orrell et al., 2012 Market Report on Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications (Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory, August 2013), http://wwwl.eere.energy.gov/wind/pdfs/2012_distributed_wind_technologies_market_report.pdf, and Market and Industry Trends section of this report.

77 See, forexample, "Microgrid Resources Coalition Launched at IDEA Campus Energy Conference," PR Web, 18 February 2014, http://www.prweb.com/releases/2014/02/prweb11594223.htm; Darrell Delamaide, "Dawn of Microgrids," EnergyBiz Magazine, September/October 2013, http://www.energybiz.com/magazine/article/325109/dawn-microgrids; Justin Gerdes, "How Microgrids are Bolstering the Nation's Power Infrastructure," Smithsonian, 15 November 2013, http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/how-microgrids-are-bolstering-the-nations-power-infrastructure-180947705/?all. See also section on Distributed Renewable Energy in Developing Countries.