Endnotes

">http://e360.yale.edu/feature/with_rooftop_solar_on_rise_us_utilities_are...

BIOMASS ENERGY

29 Based on 83 GW of capacity at end-2012 (see GSR 2013); preliminary data from IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op. cit. note 6; national-level data from the following: U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Office of Energy Projects, "Energy Infrastructure Update for December 2013," https://www.ferc.gov/legal/staff-reports/2013/dec-energy-infrastructure.pdf; AGEE-Stat, op. cit. note 18; China National Renewable Energy Centre, "CNREC 2013 Activities within China National Renewable Energy Centre" (Beijing: March 2014); Brazilian electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL), 2013, provided by Maria Beatriz Monteiro, CENBIO, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2014; IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2013, op. cit. note 6; Red Electrica de Espana (REE), "Potencia instalada Peninsular (MW)," as of 31 December 2013, http://www.ree.es;, and REE, "Demand for Electrical Energy Falls 2.1%," 20 December 2013, http://www.ree.es/en/press-office/press-release/20131220-demand-electrical-energy-falls-21; Government of India, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), "Physical Progress (Achievements)," 31 December 2013, http://www.mnre.gov. in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/, viewed January 2014; Directorate General for Energy and Geology (DGEG), provided by Lara Ferreira, Portuguese Renewable Energy Association, personal communication with REN21, May 2014; U.K. DECC, Statistics, Energy Trends Section 6: Renewables (London: 10 April 2014), p. 6, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/295356/6_Renewables.pdf; Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), Renewables Japan Status Report 2014 (Tokyo: March 2014) (in Japanese), data provided by Hironao Matsubara, ISEP, personal communication with REN21, 23 April 2014; based on data for 2008-2012 from bid.; assumption that average annual growth during the period continued, and capacityfactorachieved during 2012 applied in 2013, and on preliminary estimate for bio-power output in Italy during 2013 from IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op. cit. note8; Government Offices of Sweden, "Sweden's second progress report on the development of renewable energy pursuant to Article 22 of Directive 2009/28/EC," 23 December 2013, http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/reports/2013_en.htm.

GEOTHERMAL POWER AND HEAT

HYDROPOWER

OCEAN ENERGY

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS (PV)

from IEA-PVPS, op. cit. note 1; this was up from seven countries in 2012, including Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United States, from IEA-PVPS, Trends 2013 in Photovoltaic Applications: Survey Report of Selected IEA Countries Between 1992 and 2012 (Brussels: 2013), http://iea-pvps.org/fileadmin/dam/public/report/statistics/FINAL_TRENDS_v1.02.pdf.

CONCENTRATING SOLAR THERMAL POWER (CSP)

SOLAR THERMAL HEATING AND COOLING

of 40 MWth is based on a collector area of 28,000 m2 and the conversion factor of 0.7 kWth/m2. Note that there is no agreed-upon standard conversion factorfor solar concentrators, and an expert group of the IEA-SHC Task 49 is currently dealing with this topic. However, for now the conversion with 0.7 is considered acceptable, per Mauthner, op. cit. note 1. Note that India has 7,967 m2 of solarconcentratorsystems forsolarcooling, and a total of 27,972 m2 of solar concentrator-based systems for industrial applications, from Shirish Garud, The Energy and Resources Institute, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2014.

WIND POWER

POWER SECTOR

Biomass power: Bioenergy levelised costs of energy for power generation vary widely with costs of biomass feedstock (typically USD 0.50-9/GJ), complexity of technologies, plant capacity factor, size of plant, co-production of useful heat(CHP), regional differences for labour costs, life of plant (typically 30 years), discount rate (typically 7%), etc. In some non-OECD countries, lack of air emission regulations for boilers means capital costs are lower due to lack of control equipment. So before developing a new bioenergy plant, individual cost analysis is essential. Bio-power plants that rely on seasonal crops, such as sugar cane in Latin America, may have average capacity factors below 50%. Sources: IRENA Renewable Cost Database 2014; IRENA, Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012..., op.cit.this note; Frankfurt School-UN EP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance (FS-UNEP Centre) and Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF), Global Trends in Renewable Energy Inve stment2012 (Frankfurt: 2012), http://fs-unep-centre.org/publications/gtr-2014; O. Edenhoferetal., eds., IPCCSpecial Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (Cambridge, U.K.and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011), http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/report; Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC), 2011 Technology Roadmap of the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (Petten, The Netherlands: 2011).Geothermal power: Capacity factor and from Edenhofer et al., op.cit.this note, pp.425-26 and 1,004-06. Michael Taylor, IRENA, personal communication with REN 21, March-May 2014, input based on the "IRENA Renewable Costs Database" and analysis thereof; IRENA estimates the LCOE of a typical project to be USD 0.05-0.14/kWh for greenfield and brownfield projects. In 2010, the International Energy Agency (IEA) estimated the LCOE of a binary plant to be USD 0.08-0.11/kWh, perlEA, Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme, Geothermal Heat and Power, Technology Brief E07 (Paris: May 2010), Table 5, http://www.iea-etsap.org/web/E-TechDS/PDF/E06-geoth_energy-GS-gct.pdf. Hydropower: Characteristics based on Edenhofer et al., op.cit.this note, and on Arun Kumar, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, personal communication with REN21, March 2012. For grid-based projects, capital cost ranges and LCOE for new plants of any size provided in table are from Taylor, op.cit.this note. Off-grid capital costs and LCOE from REN21, Renewables 2011 Global Status Report (Paris: 2011), http://www.ren21.net/Portals/0/documents/Resources/GSR2011_FINAL.pdf. Note that the cost for hydropower plants is site specific and may have large variations. Small capacity plants in some areas even may exceed these limits. The cost is dependent on several factors especially plant load factor, discount rate, and life of the project. Normally, small-scale hydro projects last 20-50 years compared to large-scale hydro plants, which may last 30-80 years. Hydro facilities that are designed to provide system balancing (rather than baseload) have lower capacity factors and therefore higher generation costs per kWh, on average, but provide additional value. Ocean Energy: All data are from Edenhoferetal., op.cit.this note. Note that this is based on a very small number of pilot and demonstration installations to date; LCOE range assumes a 7% discount rate. Electricity generation costs a re in the range of USD 0.31-0.39/kWh (EUR 0.24-0.30/kWh), from Sarasin, Working Towards a Cleaner and Smarter Power Supply: Prospects for Renewables in the Energy Revolution (Basel, Switzerland: December 2012), p.11. Solar PV: Rooftop solar systems: peak capacities are based on Europe and drawn from European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), Market Report 2011 (Brussels: January 2012), http://www.epia.org/uploads/tx_epiapublications/Annual_Report_2011.pdf, and from EPIA, personal communication with REN21, 3 April 2012. Capacity factor from IRENA, Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012..., op.cit.this note, p.56. Note thatvalues outside of this rangeare possible for exceptional sites (higher) or where siting is suboptimal (lower); adding tracking systems can raise these capacity factors significantly, from IRENA, idem. Capital costs based on: average of EUR 1,640/kW in Q1 2014 (using exchange rate of EUR 1 = USD 1.37) for residential systems from German Solar Industry Association (BSW-Solar), "Statistic Data on the German Solar Power (Photovoltaic) Industry," 2014, at www.solarwirtschaft.de; U.S.range of 3,500 to 7,000 based on data from IRENA and CSI, (excludes top and bottom 5% of projects) and U.S. Solar Energy ndustries Association (SEIA)and GTM Research, U.S. Solar Market Insight (Washington, DC and Boston: 2014); Japan from Hironao Matsubara, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), personal communication with REN21, April 2014; Germany, United States, China, and Italy from Gestore Servizi Energetici (GSE) and provided by Taylor, op.cit.this note; Australia from Taylor, op.cit.this note; typical global range for industrial systems based on EUR 1,150-2,000/kW (converted using EUR 1 = USD 1.3), from Gaetan Masson, EPIA and IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (IEA-PVPS), personal communication with REN21, April 2013. LCOE costs for OECD and non-OECD are real 2013 USD values, from lowest to highest, and based on 7% cost of capital, from IRENA, Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012..., op.cit.this note, from IRENA Renewable Cost Database, 2013, and from Michael Taylor, IRENA, personal communication with REN21, May 2013; Europe based on costs in the range of EUR 0.12-0.29/kWh (converted using EUR 1 = USD 1.3) for residential, commercial, and industrial projects in the south and north of France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom, from EPIA database, provided by Masson, op.cit.this note.Ground-mounted utility-scale systems: peak capacity from EPIA, Market Report 2011, op.cit.this note, from David Renne, International Solar Energy Society (ISES), personal communication with REN21, April 2013, and from Denis Lenardic, pvresources.com, personal communication with REN21, April 2013; also see relevant section and endnotes in Market and Industry Trends section. Capital costs based on the following: typical global costs based on EUR 1,000-1,500 per kW (converted using EUR 1 = USD 1.3) from Masson, April 2013, op.cit.this note; United States, China, Germany, Japan, and India from Taylor, op.cit.this note, March-May 2014; LCOE based on the following: OECD and non-OECD cost ranges are 2013 USD, with 7% discount rate, from RENA Renewable Cost Database, op.cit.this note and from Taylor, op.cit.this note, March-May 2014; Europe based on LCOE in the range of EUR 0.11-0.26/kWh (using exchange rate of EUR 1 = USD 1.3) forground-mounted systems in the south and north of France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom, from EPIA database, provided by Masson, op.cit.this note. Note that the LCOE in Thailand is estimated to be in the range of USD 0.15-0.18/kWh, based on input from project developers and from former Thai Minister of Energy Piyasvasti Amranand, per Chris Greacen, Palang Thai, personal communication with REN21, April 2013. While PV module prices are global, balance of system costs are much more local. Also, note that prices have been changing rapidly. CSP: Characteristics including plant sizes from European Solar Thermal Electricity Association (ESTELA), personal communication with REN21, 22 March 2012 and 24 January 2013; from Protermosolar, the Spanish Solar Thermal Electricity ndustry Association, April 2012; and based on parabolic trough plants that are typically in the range of 50-200 MW; tower 20-70 MW; and Linear Fresnel in the range of 1-50 MW, per Bank Sarasin, Solar Industry: Survival of the Fittest in the Fiercely Competitive Marketplace (Basel, Switzerland: November 2011). Note that multiple systems can be combined for higher-capacity plants. Capacityfactors based on ESTELA, op.cit.this note, and on Michael Mendelsohn, Travis Lowder, and Brendan Canavan, Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaics Projects: A Technology and Market Overview (Golden, CO: U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NRED, April 2012), http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/51137.pdf; on 20-28%capacityfactorfor plants without storage and 40-50% for plants with 6-7.5 hours storage, from U.S. Department of Energy, SunShot Vision Study, prepared by NREL (Golden, CO: February 2012), p.105, http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/01/f7/47927.pdf; on 20-30%for parabolic trough plants without storage and 40% to as high as 80% for tower plants with 6-15 hours of storage, from IREN A, Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012..., op.cit.this note, p.19; and on the capacity factor of parabolic trough plants with six hours of storage, in conditions typical of the U.S. Southwest estimated to be 35-42%, per Edenhofer et al., op.cit.this note, pp.1,004, 1,006. Note that the Gemasolar plant, which began operation in Spain in 2011, has storage for up to 15 hours, per Torresol Energy, "Gemasol," www.torresolenergy.com/TORRESOL/gemasolar-plant/en. Capital costs based on: U.S.parabolic trough and tower plants without storage in the range of USD 4,000-6,000/kW, and trough and towers with storage in the range of USD 7,000-10,000/kW, from U.S. Department of Energy, Loans Programs Office, www.lgprogram.energy.gov, provided by Fred Morse, Abengoa Solar, personal communication with REN21, April 2013; U.S.tower plants at USD 5,600/kW without storage and USD 9,000/kW with storage from Lazard, "Lazard's Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis-Version 7.0," (New Orleans, LA: August 2013); and on parabolic trough plants with storage capital costs of USD 4,700-7,300/kW in OECD countries, and 3,100-4,050/kW in non-OECD (based on costs of five projects), and costs with storage all from IRENA, Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012..., op.cit.this note, pp.19, 59-60; and on range of about 3,900-8,000/kW from IEA, Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2013), http://www.iea.org/publications/tcep_web.pdf. LCOE estimates for trough and fresnel plants come from IRENA, Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012..., op.cit.this note, p.65. LCOE for tower plants from Lazard, op.cit.this note. Wind power: Characteristics based on the following: turbine sizes from JRC, 2011 Technology Map..., op.cit.this note; on- and offshore capacity factors from Edenhofer et al., op.cit.this note, p.1005; and from IRENA, Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012..., op.cit.this note, p.36. Note that weighted average capacity factors range from around 25% for China to an average 33% in the United States (with a range of 18-53%); ranges in Africa and Latin America are similarto the United States, whereas ranges in Europe are closer to China. Curtailments in China due to grid constraints put the average capacity factor for dispatched generation closer to 20%, all from IRENA, Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012..., op.cit.this note, p.36. Capital costs for onshore wind from Taylor, op.cit.this note, March-May 2014; from IRENA, Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012..., op.cit.this note, pp.18, 32-37; from Navigant's BTM Consult, International Wind Energy Development: World Market Update 2012 (Copenhagen: 2013); and on a range of about USD 1,250-2,300/kW from IEA, Tracking Clean Energy..., op.cit.this note. LCOE for onshore wind assume 7% discount rate and are from IRENA Renewable Cost Database, 2014, and from Taylor, op.cit.this note, March-May 2014; also based on range of USD 0.04-0.16 U.S.cents/kWh from IEA, Deploying Renewables: Best and Future Policy Practice (Paris: 2011), http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/Deploying_Renewables2011.pdf; additional input from Steve Sawyer, Global Wind Energy Council, personal communication with REN21, April 2014. Note that the lowest-capital cost onshore wind projects have been installed in China; higher costs have been experienced in Europe and the United States. Offshore capital from Taylor, op.cit.this note, 2014; on Navigant's BTM Consult, op.cit.this note; and on range of USD 3,000-6,000/kW from IEA, Tracking Clean Energy..., op.cit.this note. Offshore LCOE based on USD 0.15-0.17 assuming a 45% capacity factor, USD 0.035/kWh operations and maintenance cost, and 10% cost of capital, and on USD 0.14-0.15/kWh assuming a 50% capacity factor, from IRENA, Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012..., op.cit.this note, p.38; also from the low LCOE for offshore wind in the OECD is about USD 0.15/kWh and the high is USD 0.23/kWh, assuming a 7% discount rate, per idem, p.37; IRENA Renewable Cost Database, 2013, and from Taylor, op.cit.this note, May 2013. Small-scale wind capital costs ranged from USD 2,300-10,000/kW in the United States in 2011, with an average installed cost of USD 6,040/kW; this represented an increase of 11% over 2010. All capital cost data from Stefan Gsanger and Jean Pitteloud, Small Wind World Report 2014 (Bonn: World Wind Energy Association (WWEA) and New Energy Husum, March 2014), Executive Summary, http://small-wind.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/2014_SWWR_summary_web.pdf. All small-scale LCOE wind data from WWEA, 2012 Small Wind World Report (Bonn: March 2012), http://www.wwindea.org/webimages/WWEA%20Small%20Wind%20World%20Report%20 Summary%202012.pdf. Note that in 2011, installed costs of the top 10 small wind turbine models in the United States were in the range of USD 2,300-10,000/kW in 2011, and the average installed cost of all small-scale wind turbines was USD 6,040/kW; in China, the average was USD 1,900/kW, per WWEA, Small Wind World Report 2013 (Bonn: March 2013), http://www.wwindea.org/webimages/SWWR_summary.pdf]].

HEAT AND COOLING SECTOR

Blomass heat: Cost variations between heat plants are wide for reasons similar to those listed above for bio-power. Further details can be found at: Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoff e. V.(FNR), "Faustzahlen Biogas," www.biogasportal.info/daten-und-fakten/faustzahlen/, viewed May 2013; and Pellet Fuels Institute, "Compare Fuel Costs," http://pelletheat.org/pellets/compare-fuel-costs/, viewed May 2013. Bioenergy CHP includes small-scale biogas engine generating sets and biomass medium-scale steam turbines. Data converted using USD 1 GJ = 0.36 U.S.cents/kWh. Top of range for capital cost of USD 1,500 from Taylor, op.cit.this note, March-May 2014. Geothermal heat: Geothermal space heating from Edenhofer et al., op.cit.this note, pp.427 and 1,010-11 (converted from USD 2005 to 2012), assuming 7% discount rate, and using USD 1 GJ = 0.36 U.S.cents/kWh. Also, for building heating, assumptions included a load factor of 25-30%, and a lifetime of 20 years; and for district heating, the same load factor, a lifetime of 25 years, and transmission and distribution costs are not included. For ground-source heat pumps, IPCC shows capital costs of USD (2012) 1,095-4,370/kW, and USD 20-65/GJ assuming 25-30% as the load factor and 20 years as the operational lifetime. In 2011, IEA indicated a range of USD 439-4,000/kW based on 2007 data and operating efficiency of 250-500% (COP of 2.5-5.0), from IEA, Technology Roadmap Energy - Efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment (Paris: 0ECD/IEA, 2011), Table 5, http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/buildings_roadmap.pdf. For 2013, the upper end of the range for capital cost has been reduced to USD 2,250 and the LCOE has been adjusted accordingly, based on input from Taylor, op.cit.this note, March-May 2014; It is worth taking into account that actual LCOH are influenced by electricity market prices. Drilling costs are included for commercial and institutional installations, but not for residential installations. Solar thermal heating: Solar heating plant sizes and efficiency rates for hot water systems and combi systems, based on 2007 data, from IEA, Technology Roadmap..., op.cit.this note, pp.12-13, and district heat plant sizes from Werner Weiss, AEE- Institute for Sustainable Technologies (AEE-INTEC), Gleisdorf, Austria, personal communication with REN21, April 2012. Capital costsfor OECD new-build and for OECD retrofit (for year 2007) from IEA, Technology Roadmap..., op.cit.this note; LCOH for domestic hot water (low end), and capital costs and LCOH for China (all converted from USD 2005 to USD 2012; and LCOH assuming 7% discount rate, and converted using USD 1/GJ = 0.36 U.S.cents/kWh)from Edenhofer et al., op.cit.this note, p.1,010; and LCOH for domestic hot water (high end) from Andreas Haberle, PSE AG, Freiburg, personal communication with REN21, 29 May 2013. European district heat capital costs from Weiss, op.cit.this note, and from Haberle, op.cit.this note, 25 April 2013. Note that the low of USD 470/kW is for district heat systems in Denmark, where costs start at about USD 370/kW (EUR 200/m2) and storage costs a minimum of USD 100/kW. LCOH for district heat in Denmark based on low of EUR 0.03/kWh (converted using EUR 1 = USD 1.3), from Haberle, op.cit.this note. According to the IEA, the most cost effective solar district heating systems in Denmark have had investment costs in the USD 350-400/kW range, resulting in heat prices of USD 35-40/MWhth, from IEA, Technology Roadmap – Solar Heating and Cooling (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2012), p.21, http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/2012_SolarHeatingCooling_Roadmap_FINAL_WEB.pdf. Industrial process heat data all from Haberle, op.cit.this note, 25 April 2013. LCOH of USD/GJ based on USD 0.4-016/kWh, from idem.Solar cooling: capacity data, efficiency, and capital cost in the range of USD 2,925-5,850/kW from Uli Jakob, "Status and Perspective of Solar Cooling Outside Australia," in Proceedings of the Australian Solar Cooling 2013 Conference (Sydney: 12 April 2013). Efficiency based on coefficient of performance (COP) ranging from 0.50 to 0.70, depending on the system used and on driving, heat rejection, and cold water temperatures. Capital cost ranges based on EUR 2,250/kW for large-scale kits to EUR 4,500/kW for small-scale kits. Low-end of capita I costs based on range of USD 1,600-3,200/kW for medium-to large-scale systems from EA, Technology Roadmap - Solar Heating and Cooling, op.cit.this note, p.21.

TRANSPORT SECTOR

Biofuel costs vary widely due to fluctuating feedstock prices (see, for example, Agriculture Marketing Resource Center (AgMRC), "Tracking Ethanol Profitability," www.agmrc.org/renewable_energy/ethanol/tracking_ethanol_profitability.cfm. Costs quoted exclude value of any co-products. Sources: Taylor, op.cit.this note, March-May 2014; IRENA, Road Transport: The Cost of Renewable Solutions (Abu Dhabi: June 2013), http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/Road_Transport.pdf; Gonzalo Bravo, Fundación Bariloche, personal communication with REN21, April 2014; Ernst and Young, Renewable Energy Attractiveness Indices (London: November 2012), http://emergingmarkets.ey.com/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2012/11/EY-Cleantech-CAI-lssue-35-FINAL-1112.pdf; JRC, 2011 Technology Roadmap..., op.cit.this note; USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, "Indonesia - Biofuels Annual - 2012," 14 August 2012, http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20 GAIN%20Publications/Biofuels%20Annual_Jakarta_lndonesia_8-14-2012.pdf.

RURAL ENERGY

Biogas digesters, average cost for Asia and Africa (weighted average across countries based on numberof installations) from SNV, Domestic Biogas Newsletter, September 2011, http://www.snvworld.org/en/download/publications/snv_domestic_biogas_newsletter_issue_5_September_2011.pdf; wind capital cost data based on what is representative for Africa, from B. Klimbie, "Smal and Medium Wind for Off-Grid Electrification," presentation at International Off-Grid Renewable Energy Conference and Exhibition (I0REC), 2 November 2012, cited in IRENA, Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012..., op.cit.this note, p.34; LCOE from Alliance for Rural Electrification, cited in Simon Rolland, "Campaigning for Small Wind: Facilitating Off-Grid Uptake," Renewable Energy World, March-April 2013, pp.47-49. David Lecoque, Alliance for Rural Electrification; Paul Bertheau, Reiner Lemoine Institut; Nico Peterschmidt, INSENSUS—all personal communications with REN21, May 2014. All other data from past editions of REN21, Renewables Global Status Report (Paris: REN21 Secretariat, various years).

INVESTMENT FLOWS

POLICY LANDSCAPE

185 James Montgomery, "Reenergizing Cities with Solar Energy," Renewable Energy World, 1 October 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/10/reenergizing-cities-with-solar-energy?cmpid=WNL-Wednesday-0ctober2-2013.

DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

TRACKING THE GLOBAL ENERGY TRANSITION: A DECADE OF UNPRECEDENTED MOMENTUM FOR RENEWABLES

23 Ibid.

REFERENCE TABLES

1 Table R1 derived from the following sources: Bio-power based on 83 GW of capacity at end-2012 (see GSR 2013), preliminary data from International Energy Agency (IEA), Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014 (Paris: OECD/IEA, forthcoming 2014), and national level data from the following: U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Office of Energy Projects, "Energy nfrastructure Update for December 2013," https://www.ferc.gov/legal/staff-reports/2013/dec-energy-infrastructure.pdf; Arbeitsgruppe Erneuerbare Energien-Statistik (AGEE-Stat), Erneuerbare Energien im Jahr 2013 (Berlin: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie(BMWi), 2014), http://www.bmwi.de/BMWi/Redaktion/PDF/A/agee-stat-bericht-ee-2013,prope rty=pdf,bereich=bmwi2012,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf; China National Renewable Energy Centre, "CNREC 2013 Activities within China National Renewable Energy Centre" (Beijing: March 2014); Brazilian electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL), 2013, provided by Maria Beatriz Monteiro, CENBIO, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2014; IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2013 (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2013); Red Electrica de Espana (REE), "Potencia instalada Peninsular (MW)," as of 31 December 2013, updated March 2014, http://www.ree.es; Government of India, Ministry of Newand Renewable Energy (MNRE), "Physical Progress (Achievements)," 31 December 2013, http://www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/; Directorate General for Energy and Geology (DGEG), provided by Lara Ferreira, Portuguese Renewable Energy Association, personal communication with REN21, May 2014; U.K. Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), Statistics, Energy Trends Section 6: Renewables, Department of Energy and Climate Change, March 2014 (updated 10 April 2014), p.6, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/295356/6_Renewables.pdf; InstituteforSustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), Renewables Japan Status Report 2014 (Tokyo: March 2014) (in Japanese), data provided by Hironao Matsubara, ISEP, personal communication with REN21, 23 April 2014; Luca Benedetti, Energy Studies and Statistics, Gestore dei Servizi Energetici (GSES.p. A.), Rome, personal communication with REN21, 16 May 2014; Government Offices of Sweden, "Sweden's second progress report on the development of renewable energy pursuant to Article 22 of Directive 2009/28/EC," 23 December 2013, http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/reports/2013_en.htm.Geothermal power from Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), per Benjamin Matek, GEA, personal communication with REN21, March 2014, and other sources provided in Endnote 5 of this section.Hydropower from International Hydropower Association (IHA), personal communication with REN21, March-April 2014; from preliminary estimates in IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op.cit.this note; and from Hydropower Equipment Association (HEA) data based on its members' aggregated input, personal communication with REN21, April 2014.Ocean power from Ocean Energy Systems (OES), "Ocean Energy in the World," http://www.ocean-energy-systems.org/ocean_energy_in_the_world/; from OES, Annual Report 2012 (Lisbon: 2012), Table 6.1, http://www.ocean-energy-systems.org/oes_reports/annual_reports/2012_annual_report/; and from Électricité de France (EDF), "Usine marémotrice de La Rance," http://energie.edf.com/hydraulique/energies-marines/carte-des-implantations-marines/usine-maremotrice-de-la-rance/presentation-51516.html. See Ocean Energy section and related endnotes for more information.Solar PV from sources in Endnote 7 of this section.CSP from sources in Endnote 8 of this section.Wind power from sources in Endnote 10 of this section.Modern bio-heat based on 293 GWth in GSR 2013, which was estimated from the 297 GWth in 2008 quoted in Helena Chum et al., "Bioenergy," Chapter 2 in O. Edenhofer et al., eds., IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Resources and Climate Change Mitigation, prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge, U.K.and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011) and the 270 GWth in 2009 referenced in Global Energy Assessment - Toward a Sustainable Future (Cambridge, U.K.and Laxenburg, Austria: Cambridge University Press and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2012), and assuming a 1%growth rate for 2013. No more-accurate data currently exist.Geothermal heating capacity derived from the average of two estimated values. The first (25.8 GWth) was derived from global annual direct use in 2009-2011, from IEA, World Energy Statistics (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2013), data for 2011, and from a capacity factor of about 46% for 2009, calculated from John W. Lund, Derek H. Freeston, and Tonya L. Boyd, "Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2010 Worldwide Review," Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2010, (Bali, Indonesia: 25-29 April 2010), and escalated at the observed two-year average growth rate (2009-2011) to 2012 and 2013; the second (19.3 GWth) was derived from global capacity of 15,346 MWth in 2009, from Lund, Freeston, and Boyd, op.cit.this note, which was escalated first at the annual growth rate from IEA data to 2011 and then by the two-year average growth rate (2009-2011) to 2013, asabove. The average of these two values is the estimated global heat capacity at 22.6 GWth, with estimated increase of 1.3 GWth during 2013. The divergence between the two sources forgeothermal heat output, and the need to extrapolate over 2-4 years, makes these estimates subject to great uncertainty.Solar collectors for water heating estimates based on end-2012 total capacity, and preliminary estimate for end-2013 capacity, from Franz Mauthner, AEE-Institute for Sustainable Technologies (AEE-INTEC), Gleisdorf, Austria, personal communication with REN21, March-May 2014, and on Franz Mauthner and Werner Weiss, Solar Heat Worldwide: Markets and Contribution to the Energy Supply 2012 (Gleisdorf, Austria: IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC), forthcoming May 2014). See Solar Thermal Heating and Cooling section and related endnotesfor more details.Ethanol, biodiesel, and HVO production data from sources in Endnote 4 of this section.

2 Table R2 derived from the following sources: For all global data, see Endnote 1 forthis section and other relevant reference tables. For more specific data and sources, see Global Market and ndustry Overview section and Market and Industry section and related endnotes.Bio-power for EU-28 and individual European countries based on the following: AGEE-Stat, op. cit. note 1; Benedetti, op. cit. note 1; REE, op. cit. note 1; DGEG, op. cit. note 1; DECC, op. cit. note 1; Réseau de Transport d'Électricité, (RTE), Bilan Électrique 2013 (Paris: 2014), p.21, http://www.rte-france.com/uploads/Mediatheque_docs/vie_systeme/annuelles/Bilan_electrique/bilan_electrique_2013. PDF; Government Offices of Sweden, op. cit. note 1; E-Control Austria, "Entwicklung der anerkannten 'sonstigen' Ökostromanlagen (exclusive Kleinwasskraft) von 2002-2013," updated May 2014, http://www.e-control.at/portal/page/portal/medienbibliothek/oeko-energie/dokumente/pdfs/Entwicklung%20anerkannter%20 %C3%96kostromanlagen%202002-2013_Tabelle_Stand%20 Mai%202014.pdf; preliminary data from IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op. cit. note 1; United States from FERC, op. cit. note 1.; BRICS and individual countries from ANEEL, op. cit. note 1; CNREC, op. cit. note 1; MNRE, op. cit. note 1; Russia and South Africa from IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2013, op. cit. note 1.Geothermal powerfrom global inventory of geothermal power plants by GEA (unpublished database), provided by Benjamin Matek, GEA, personal communication with REN21, March-May 2014; for other sources, see Endnote 5 in this section.Hydropower from sources in Endnotes 1 and 6 for this section.Ocean powerfrom OES, Annual Report 2012 op. cit. note 1; OES, Annual Report 2013 (Lisbon: 2013), Table 6.2, http://www.ocean-energy-systems.org/documents/82577_oes_annual_report_2013.pdf/; IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2013, op. cit. note 1, p.179, and other sources provided in Ocean Energy section.Solar PV data for EU-28 from Gaëtan Masson, IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (IEA-PVPS) and iCARES Consulting, personal communication with REN21, 2 May 2014; European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2014-2018 (Brussels: June 2014); data for BRICS based on Brazil from IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2013, op. cit. note 1, p.119; South Africa from EScience Associates, Urban-Econ Development Economists, and Chris Ahlfeldt, The Localisation Potential of Photovoltaics (PV) and a Strategy to Support Large Scale Roll-Out in South Africa, Integrated Report, Draft Final v1.2, prepared for the South African Department of Trade and Industry, March 2013, p.x, http://www.sapvia.co.za; for other countries and sources, see Endnote 7 in this section.CSP from sources in Endnote 8 for this section.Wind power data for EU-28 from European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), Wind in Power 2013 European Statistics (Brussels: February 2014); data for BRICS based on data for Brazil from Francine Martins Pisni, Associagao Brasileira de Energia Eólica (ABEEólica), communication with REN21 via Suani Coelho, CENBIO, 29 April 2014; Russia from EWEA, op.cit.this note; South Africa from World Wind Energy Association (WWEA), World Wind Energy Report 2013 (Bonn: 2014); for other sources, see Endnote 10 forthis section.Population data for 2012 from World Bank, "World development indicators- Population (total)," 2014, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP. POP. TOTL, viewed 7 March 2014.

3 Trade data used in this analysis are complex and are not always standardised among countries.Table R3 derived from the following sources: PA. Lamers, Mountain View Research, Denver, CO, personal communication with REN 21, 9 January 2014; P. Lamers et al., "Woody Biomass Trade for Energy," in M. Junginger, C. S. Goh, and A. Faaij, eds., International Bioenergy Trade: History, status and outlook on securing sustainable bioenergy supply, demand and markets {Berlin-. Springer, 2013), pp.41-64; European Biomass Association (AEBIOM), European Bioenergy Outlook - Statistical Report (Brussels: 2013); Hawkins Wright, "The Outlook for Wood Pellet Demand," presented at the U.S. Industrial Pellet Association 3rd Annual Exporting Pellets Conference, Miami, FL, 28 October 2013; C. S. Goh etal., "Wood Pellet Market and Trade: A Global Perspective," Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, vol.7 (2013), pp.24-42; P. Lamers etal., "Developments in International Solid Biofuel Trade - An Analysis of Volumes, Policies, and Market Factors," Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.16(2012), pp.3176-99.

4 Table R4 derived from the following sources: ethanol and biodiesel production and comparison with 2012 based on data from F. O. Licht, "Fuel Ethanol: World Production, by Country," 2014, and from F. O. Licht, "Biodiesel: World Production, by Country," 2014, with permission from F. O. Licht/Licht Interactive Data; preliminary 2012 data that appeared in GSR 2013 have been updated where possible; ethanol data converted from cubic metres to litres using 1,000 litres/cubic metre; biodiesel data converted from units of 1,000 tonnes using a density value for biodiesel to give 1,136 litres pertonne based on U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide, Fourth Edition (Golden, CO: 2009); other major sources of biofuel production data are IEA and United Nations Food and Agriculture. Note that data can vary considerably among sources. For further details, see Bioenergy section in Market and Industry Trends by Technology, and related endnotes.

5 Table R5 derived from the following sources: total global installed capacity in 2013 of 12 GW is based on inventory of existing capacity and installed capacity in 2013, from GEA, op. cit. note 1, with the following supplemental information, by country: New Zealand from Contact Energy, "Continued performance improvement," press release (Wellington: 18 February 2014), http://www.contactenergy.co.nz/web/pdf/financial/cen-hy14-media-release.pdf; Robert Peltier, "Contact Energy Ltd.'s Te Mihi Power Station Harnesses Sustainable Geothermal Energy," Power Magazine, 1 August 2013, http://www.powermag.com/contact-energy-ltd-s-te-mihi-power-station-harnesses-sustainable-geothermal-energy/; Mighty River Power, "PM opens showcase geothermal plant: boost for MRP, benefits for NZ," press release (Auckland: 3 October 2013), http://www.mightyriver.co.nz/PDFs/PDFs/New-Geothermal-plant-boosts-MRP-and-benefits-NZ.aspx; Ormat, "Ormat Successfully Completed the Ngatamariki Geothermal Plant," press release (Reno, NV 3 September 2013), http://www.ormat.com/news/latest-items/ormat-successfully-completed-ngatamariki-geothermal-plant; Turkeyfrom Phillip Dumas, European Geothermal Energy Council, personal communication with REN21, February 2014; Özgür Çağlan Kuyumcu, "Middle East Geothermal Potential," presentation at Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting 2013 (Las Vegas, NV, 29 September-2 October 2013, http://www.geothermal.org; Mahmut Parlaktuna et al., "Geothermal Country Update report of Turkey (2012-2013)," prepared for the European Geothermal Congress 2013, Pisa, Italy, 3-7 June 2013, http://www.geothermal-energy.org/pdf/IGAstandard/EGC/2013/EGC2013_CUR-32.pdf; Fuji Electric, "Introduction to Fuji Electric's Recent Experiences in Geothermal Power Plant Business," presentation, October 2013, http://www.jica.go.jp/information/seminar/2013/ku57pq00001ktre1-att/20131101_01_06.pdf; "Zorlu's geothermal power plant opened," Hurriyet Daily News, 30 September 2013, http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/zorlus-geothermal-power-plant-opened.aspx?pageID=238&nID=55378&NewsCatID=345; MB Holding [Menderes Geothermal Elektrik Üretim (MEGE)], "Dora-3 Produces, Turkey Wins," 17 September 2013, http://www.mb.com.tr/en/basinda-mb-holding; BM Holding, "Gümüşköy GEPP Project," http://www.bmholding.com.tr/group_companies/geothermal.asp?show=gumuskoy_gepp_project&menu=power_generation; United States from Enel Green Power, "Enel Green Power: The Cove Fort Geothermal Power Plant Starts Operations in Utah," press release (Rome and Boston: 27 November 2013), http://www.enelgreenpower.com/en-GB/ena/events_news/press_releases/release.aspx?iddoc=1661220; U.S. Department of Energy, "Nevada Deploys First U.S. Commercial, Grid-Connected Enhanced Geothermal System," 12 April 2013, http://www.energy.gov/articles/nevada-deploys-first-us-commercial-grid-connected-enhanced-geothermal-system; In-field and near-field EGS are located within or near existing conventional geothermal installations, while greenfield projects would be located on previously undeveloped sites, from GEA, 2013 Geothermal Power International Market Overview (Washington, DC: September 2013); Ormat, "Ormat Completes the Don A. Campbell Geothermal Power Plant with Full 16 Megawatt (net) Output," press release (Reno, NV: 6 January 2014), http://www.ormat.com/news/latest-items/ormat-completes-don-campbell-geothermal-power-plant-full-16-megawatt-net-output; Alexander Richter, "Gradient Resources starts operation of Patua plant in Nevada, " Think Geoenergy, 15 January 2014, http://thinkgeoenergy.com/archives/17677; Gradient Resources Web site, http://www.gradient.com/; Ormat, "Ormat Becomes Sole Owner of the Mammoth Complex in Mammoth Lakes, California," press release (Reno, NV 2 August 2010), http://www.ormat.com/news/acquisitions/ormat-becomes-sole-owner-mammoth-complex-mammoth-lakes-california; Ormat, "Ormat Reaches Commercial Operation of the Newly Refurbished Mammoth G1 Power Plant," press release (Reno, NV: 23 January 2014), http://www.ormat.com/news/latest-items/ormat-reaches-commercial-operation-newly-refurbished-mammoth-g1-power-plant; Ormat, "Ormat Reaches Commercial Operation of the Newly Refurbished Mammoth Gl Power Plant," press release (Reno, NV 23 January 2014), http://www.ormat.com/news/latest-items/ormat-reaches-commercial-operation-newly-refurbished-mammoth-g1-power-plant; Kenya from Ormat, "Ormat Technologies Commences Operation of 36 MW Geothermal Power Plant In Kenya," press release (Reno, NV 2 May 2013), http://www.ormat.com/news/latest-items/ormat-technologies-commences-operation-36-mw-geothermal-power-plant-kenya; Ormat "Olkaria III Geothermal Complex in Kenya Reaches 110 MWwith Commercial Operation of Plant 3," press release (Reno, NV 4 February 2014), http://www.ormat.com/news/latest-items/olkaria-iii-geothermal-complex-kenya-reaches-110-mw-commercial-operation-plant-3; Philippines from Maibarara Geothermal Inc., "20 MW Maibarara Geothermal Power Project Starts Commercial Operations," 9 February 2014, http://maibarara.com.ph/news/20-mw-maibarara-geothermal-power-project-starts-commercial-operations; Maibarara Geothermal Inc., "Maibarara Geothermal Power Project Gets CDM Approval," 15 May 2013, http://maibarara.com.ph/uncategorized/maibarara-geothermal-power-project-gets-cdm-approval; Manuel S. Ogena and Ariel Fronda, Philippines Department of Energy, "Prolonged Geothermal Generation and Opportunity in the Philippines," presentation at Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting 2013, Las Vegas, NV, 30 September 2013, http://www.geothermal.org; Mexico from Alstom, "Los Humeros II, Units 9 & 10," http://www.alstom.com/Global/Power/Resources/Documents/Brochures/los-humeros-II-mexico-geothermal-power-plant-datasheet.pdf; Alstom, "Alstom to build "Los Humeros III" geothermal project in Mexico," 19 December 2013, http://www.alstom.com/press-centre/2013/11/alstom-to-build-los-humeros-iii-geothermal-project-in-mexico/; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, "Project 8861: Los Humeros II Phase A+B Geothermal Project," http://cdm.unfccc.int/Projects/DB/DNV-CUK13558314072/view; Luis Gutierrez-Negrin, Mexican Geothermal Association, personal communication with REN21, April 2014.

6 Table R6 derived from the following sources: China: China Electricity Council (CEO, summary of electricity supply and demand from CEC's 2014 Annual Report, http://www.cec.org.cn/guihuayutongji/gongxufenxi/dianligongxufenxi/2014-02-25/117272.html; Shi Pengfei, China Wind Energy Association, personal communication with REN21, 12 March 2014; Brazil: 1,533 MW (264 MW small hydro and 1,264 MW large hydro) added in 2013, per National Agencyfor Electrical Energy (ANEEL), "Fiscalização dos serviços de geração," February 2013, http://www.aneel.gov.br/area.cfm?idArea=37; large hydro capacity is listed as 81.093 GW at end-2013 and small hydro at 4.656 GW, for a total of 85,749 MW; generation from National Electrical System Operatorof Brazil (ONS), "Geração de Energia," http://www.ons.org.br/historico/geracao_energia.aspx; United States: 2012 capacity from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electric Power Annual, Table 4.3 Existing Capacity by Energy Source, http://www.eia.gov/electricity/annual/html/epa_04_03.html; projected net additions in 2013 of 201 MW from idem, Table 4.5 Planned Generating Capacity Changes by Energy Source, 2013-2017, http://www.eia.gov/electricity/annual/html/epa_04_05.html; generation from EIA, Electric Power Monthly, February 2014, Table 1.1, http://www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly; Canada: Canadian Hydropower Association, communication with REN21, February 2014; Hydropower Equipment Association (HEA)data based on its members' aggregated input, personal communication with REN21, April 2014; generation from Statistics Canada, "Table 127-0002 Electric Power Generation, by class of electricity producer," http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim; Russia: capacity and generation from System Operator of the Unified Energy System of Russia, Report on the Unified Energy System in 2013 (Moscow: undated), http://www.so-ups.ru/fileadmin/files/company/reports/disclosure/2014/ups_rep2013.pdf; India: installed capacity in 2013 (units larger than 25 MW) of 39,893.4 MW from Government of India, Ministry of Power, Central Electricity Authority, "Installed capacity as of 31 December 2013," http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/inst_capacity/decl3.pdf, and idem, "List of H. E. Stations in the Country with Station Capacity Above 25 MW," http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/hydro/list_he__stations.pdf; capacity additions in 2013 (>25 MW) of 554 MW from Central Electricity Authority, "Executive Summary of the Power Sector (monthly)," http://www.cea.nic.in/exesum_cood.html; installed capacity in 2013 (<25 MW) of 3,763.15 MW from MNRE, op. cit. note 1; capacity additions in 2013 (<25 MW) of 267 MW based on difference of year-end 2013 figure (above) and year-end 2012 figure (3,496.15 MW) from MNRE, Annual Report 2012-2013 (New Delhi: undated), Table 3.7, http://www.mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/publications/annual-report-2; generation for plants larger than 25 MW from Central Electricity Authority, "Executive Summary of the Power Sector (monthly)," op.cit.this note, and output from hydropower plants smaller than 25 MW estimated, based on capacity from MNRE, Annual Report 2012-2013, op.cit.this note and on average capacityfactorfor large hydropower facilities in India; Turkey: capacity was 19,609.4 MW at the end of 2012 and 22,493.6 MW by 31 January 2014, from Dr.Öztürk Selvitop, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Republic of Turkey, "Hydropower in Turkish Energy Sector," presentation, Ankara, 4 March 2014, http://suyonetimi.ormansu.gov.tr/Libraries/su/Hydropower_in_Turkish_Energy_Sector.sflb.ashx; see also Turkish Electricity Transmission Company, capacity projections, http://www.teias.gov.tr/YayinRapor/APK/projeksiyon/KapasiteProjeksiyonu2013.docx; Vietnam: late 2013 capacity from Do Duc Quan, director, Hydropower Department, General Department of Energy, "Policies on Sustainable Hydropower Development in Vietnam, presentation, Second Mekong River Commission Summit and International Conference, Ho Chi Minh City, 2-5 April 2014, http://www.mrcsummit.org/presentations/track2/1.2-d-policy-for-sustainable-dev-ofhydro-QuanDoDuc.pdf; 2012 year-end capacity of 12.95 GW from National Electricity Center of Vietnam, http://www.nldc.evn.vn/News/7/661/Bao-cao-tong-ket-nam-2012.aspx; World based on International Hydropower Association (IHA) Hydropower Database, personal communication with REN21, March 2014; from preliminary estimates in IEA, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014, op. cit. note 1.

7 Table R7 derived from the following sources: Germany: 32,643 MW at end-2012, added 3,305 MW in 2013 for a total of 35,948 MW, from AGEE-Stat, op. cit. note 1; 3,304 MW added fora total of 35,500 MW, from IEA-Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (IEA-PVPS), PVPS Report- Snapshot of Global PV 1993-2013: Preliminary Trends Information from the IEA PVPS Programme (Brussels: March 2014), http://www.iea-pvps.org/fileadmin/dam/public/report/statistics/PVPS_report_-_A_Snapshot_of_Global_PV_-_1992-2013_-_final_3.pdf; China: 7 GW at end-2012 from EPIA, op. cit. note 2; added 12.92 GW from China National Energy Administration, provided by Gaëtan Masson, IEA PVPS and iCARES Consulting, May 2014; foran estimated total of 19.9 GW from Masson, op.cit.this note; Italy 16.4 GW at end 2012, from IEA-PVPS, Trends in Photovoltaic Applications 2013: Survey Report of Selected IEA Countries Between 1992 and 2012 (Brussels: 2013), http://iea-pvps.org/fileadmin/dam/public/report/statistics/FINAL_TRENDS_v1.02.pdf; added 1,461 MW in 2013 fora total of 17.6 GW from IEA-PVPS, PVPS Report, op.cit.this note; Japan: 6,631 MW at end 2012, from IEA-PVPS, Trends in Photovoltaic Applications 2013, op.cit.this note; added 6,900 MW for a total of 13,643 MW, from IEA-PVPS, PVPS Report, op. cit. note 7; United States: 7.2 GW at end 2012, from IEA-PVPS, Trends in Photovoltaic Applications 2013, op.cit.this note; added 4,751 MW fora total of 12.1 GW from GTM Research and U.S. Solar Energy Industries Association, U.S. Solar Market Insight Report: 2013 Year-in Review (Washington, DC: 2014), Executive Summary, http://www.seia.org/research-resources/solar-market-insight-report-2013-year-review; added 4,750 MW for a total of 12,020 MW from IEA-PVPS, PVPS Report, op.cit.this note; Spain: 5.4 GW at end 2012 from Gaetan Masson, EA PVPS and iCARES Consulting, personal communications with REN21, February-May 2014; added 152 MW in 2013 for a total of 5,566 MW, from IEA-PVPS, PVPS Report, op.cit.this note; France: 4,033 MW at end 2012 from IEA-PVPS, Trends in Photovoltaic Applications 2013, op.cit.this note; 613 MW added in 2013 fora total of 4,632 MW from IEA-PVPS, PVPS Report, op.cit.this note; United Kingdom: 1,829 MW at end 2012, from IEA-PVPS, Trends in Photovoltaic Applications 2013, op.cit.this note; added 1.5 GW in 2013 for a total of 3.3 GWfrom EPIA, op. cit. note 2; Australia: 2,415 MW at end-2012, from IEA-PVPS, Trends in Photovoltaic Applications 2013, op.cit.this note; added 848 MW in 2013 fora total of 3,255 MW, from IEA-PVPS, PVPS Report, op.cit.this note; Belgium: 2,698 MW at end-2012, from IEA-PVPS, Trends in Photovoltaic Applications 2013, op.cit.this note; added 215 MW in 2013 for a total of 2,983 MW, from IEA-PVPS, PVPS Report, op.cit.this note; Rest of World based on other data provided in table; World Total: 99,690 MW at end-2012, from EPIA, Market Report 2013 (Brussels: March 2014), http://www.epia.org/uploads/tx_epiapublications/Market_Report_2013_02.pdf; added more than 39 GW for a total of 139 GW based on: 39—40 GW installed for a total of 138—140 GW, from Masson, op.cit.this note, and preliminary estimates from IEA-PVPS, PVPS Report, op.cit.this note, and from EPIA, op. cit. note 2.

8 Table R8 derived from the following sources: REN21, Renewables 2013 Global Status Report (Paris: REN21 Secretariat, June 2013), http://www.ren21.net/Portals/0/documents/Resources/GSR/2013/GSR2013_lowres.pdf; Luis Crespo, ESTELA, personal communication with REN21, February 2014; Fred Morse, Morse Associates, Inc., personal communication with REN21, February 2014; "CSP World Map," CSP World, http://www.csp-world.com/cspworldmap; "CSP Today Global Tracker," CSP Today, http://social.csptoday.com/tracker/projects; U.S. Solar Energy ndustries Association (SEIA), "Solar Energy Facts: 2013 Year in Review," 5 March 2014, http://www.seia.org/sites/default/files/YIR%202013%20SMI%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf; SEIA, "MajorSolar Projects in the United States: Operating, Under Construction, or Under Development," 6 March 2014, http://www.seia.org/sites/default/files/resources/Major%20Solar%20Projects%20 List%203.6.14.pdf; "NextEra dedicates 250 MW Genesis CSP Plant," SolarServer, 25 April 2014, http://www.solarserver.com/sola r-magazine/solar-news/current/2014/kw17/nextera-dedicates-250-mw-genesis-csp-plant.html; Abengoa Solar, "Mojave Solar Project," http://www.abengoasolar.com/web/en/nuestras_plantas/plantas_en_construccion/estados_unidos/.

9 Table R9 derived from the following sources: Mauthner and Weiss, op. cit. note 1; Mauthner, op. cit. note 1. The Mauthnerand Weiss report covers an estimated 95% of the world total, which REN21 has adjusted to 100% to derive the world total. See Solar Heating and Cooling section and endnotes forfurther details.

10 Table R10 derived from the following sources: year-end world and country data for 2012 from Global Wind Energy Counci (GWEC), Global Wind Report—Annual Market Update 2013 (Brussels: April 2014), GWEC), http://www.gwec.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/GWEC-Global-Wind-Report_9-April-2014.pdf; data for 2013 from the following sources: China: added 16,089 MW for a total of 91,412 MW installed by the end of 2013, from Chinese Wind Energy Association (CWEA), provided by Shi Pengfei, CWEA, personal communication with REN21, 14 March 2014; official data forgrid-connected and operational by year's end, including 60.8 GW at end-2012, 14.1 GW added in 2013, and 75.5 GW at year's end, are from China Electricity Council, provided by Shi Pengfei, CWEA, personal communication with REN21, 15 April 2014; United States added 1,087 MWfor a total of 61,110 MW, from American Wind Energy Association, "U.S. Capacity & Generation," U.S. Wind Industry Annual Market Report 2013 (Washington, DC: 10 April 2014), http://www.awea.org/AnnualMarketReport.aspx?ltemNumber=6305&RDtoken=35392&userID=; Germany added 3,592 MW of capacity, of which 3,237 MW was grid-connected and 236 MW was used for repowering, fora total of 34,660 MW installed and 34,305 MWgrid-connected at year's end, based on C. Ender, "Wind Energy Use in Germany—Status 31.12.2013," DEWI Magazin, February 2014, http://www.dewi.de/dewi/fileadmin/pdf/publications/Magazin_44/07.pdf; added 3,238 MW (2,980 MW net additions, accounting for repowering) to grid for a total of 34,250 MW, from GWEC, op.cit.this note; Spain: added 175 MW for a total of 22,959 MW, from European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), Wind in Power: 2013 European Statistics (Brussels: February 2014), p.4, http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/files/library/publications/statistics/EWEA_Annual_Statistics_2013.pdf; 173 MW net additions for total of 22,746 MW, from REE, op. cit. note 1; India added 1,729 MW in 2013 for a total of 20,150 MW, from GWEC, op.cit.this note, p.17; United Kingdom added 1,883 MW for a year-end total of 10,531 MW, from EWEA, op.cit.this note, pp.4-5; Italy added 444 MW for a total of 8,551 MW, from idem, pp.4-5; France added 631 MW for a total of 8,254 MW, from idem, pp.3-5; Canada added nearly 1,600 MWfor a total of 7,802.72 MW, from Canadian Wind Energy Association, "Installed Capacity," http://canwea.ca/wind-energy/installed-capacity/, viewed 11 April 2014; Denmark: added 657 MW for a total of 4,772 MW, from EWEA, op.cit.this note, pp.4-5; added net 626 M W for total of 4,792 M W at year's end, from Carsten Vittrup, "2013 Was a Record-Setting Yearfor Danish Wind Power," Energinet. DK, 15 January 2014, http://www.energinet.dk/EN/EI/Nyheder/Sider/2013-var-et-rekordaar-for-dansk-vindkraft.aspx; Rest of World based on other data provided in table; Global: added 35,289 MW during the year, bringing the total to 318,105 MW, from GWEC, op.cit.this note, p.16; 35,550 MW added for a total of 318,529 MW, from World Wind Energy Association, World Wind Energy Report 2013 (Bonn: 2014); and 36,134 M W added for a total of 321,559 MW, from Navigant Research, World Market Update 2013: International Wind Energy Development. Forecast 2014-2018 (Copenhagen: March 2014), Executive Summary; 35,572 MW installed for a total of 318,576 MW, from EurObserv'ER, Wind Energy Barometer (Paris: February 2014), p.2, http://www.energies-renouvelables.org/observ-er/stat_baro/observ/baro-jdel4-gb.pdf. See Wind Power text and related endnotes for further world and country statistics and details.

11 Table R11 from Frankfurt School-UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance and Bloomberg New Energ Finance, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2014 (Frankfurt: 2014).

12 Table R12 from the following sources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports; EurObserv'ER, The State of Renewable Energies in Europe (Paris: 2014), http://www.energies-renouvelables.org/observ-er/stat_baro/barobilan/barobilanl3-gb.pdf. For online updates, see the "Renewables Interactive Map" atwww.ren21.net.

13 Table R13 from thefollowingsources: REN21 database; submissions by report contributors; various industry reports; EurObserv'ER, Worldwide Electricity Production from Renewable Energy Sources: Stats and Figures Series (Paris: 2014) Targets for the EU-28were set in each country's National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP), available at http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/action_plan_en.htm. Certain NREAP targets have been revised subsequently. For online updates, see the "Renewables Interactive Map" at www.ren21.net.

14 Table R14 from REN21 database compiled from all available policy references plus submissions from report contributors. Targets for the EU-28 were set in each country's NREAP. Certain NREAP targets have been revised subsequently. For on line updates, see the "Renewables Interactive Map" at www.ren21.net.

15 Table R15 from ibid.

16 Table R16 from all available policy references, including the EA/IRENA online Global Renewable Energy Policies and Measures database, published sources as given in the endnotes for the Policy Landscape section of this report, and submissions from report contributors.

17 Table R17 from ibid.

18 Table R18 from ibid.

19 Table R19 derived from the following sources: Forselected targets and policies, see the EU Covenant of Mayors, ICLEI - Local Governments forSustainability; REN21, Global Futures Report (Paris: 2013); and REN21, ISEP, and ICLEI, 2011 Global Status Report on Local Renewable Energy Policies (Paris: May 2011). Forselected examples in urban planning, see: City of Glasgow, Environment, Sustainable Glasgow Report (Glasgow: January 2010), http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/chttphandler.asx?id=10159&p=0; City of Hong Kong, Blueprint for Sustainable Use of Resources 2013 - 2022 (Hong Kong: May 2012), http://www.enb.gov.hk/en/files/WastePlan-E.pdf; "Green Hong Kong" (Hong Kong: May 2012), http://www.brandhk.gov.hj/en/facts/factsheets/pdf/05_green_hongkong_en.pdf; City of Malmö, "Environmental Programme for the City of Malmo 2009-2020" (Malmo: 2009), http://www.malmo.se/download/18.6301369612700a2db9180006227/Environmental-Programme-for-the-City-of-Malmo-2009-2020.pdf; IRENA, "Renewable Energy Policy in Cities: Selected Case Studies - Malmo, Sweden"(Abu Dhabi: January 2013), www.irena.org/Publications/RE_Policy_Cities_CaseStudies/IRENA%20cities%20case%207%20Malmo.pdf; City of Seoul, City Initiatives, "Overview of Seoul City's Administration Plan" (Seoul: 2011), http://english.seoul.go.kr/gtk/cg/policies.php; "City Planning of Seoul" (Seoul: 2013), http://english.seoul.go.kr/library/common/download.php?fileDir=/community/&fileName=04_City_Planning_of_Seoul.pptx; City of Sydney, Decentralised Energy Master Plan Renewable Energy (Sydney: 2013), http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/2030/makingithappen/documents/Building_Water_Energy_Retrofit_EOI.pdf; City of Sydney, Decentralised Energy Master Plan Trigeneration 2010-2030 (Sydney: 2013), http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/153282/Renewable-Energy-Master-Plan.pdf; City of Vancouver, Green Vancouver, "Greenest City 2020 Action Plan" (Vancouver November 2012), http://vancouver.ca/files/cov/greenest-city-action-plan.pdf; City of Yokohama, "Climate Change Policy-related Pages of the Mid-Term Plan of the City of Yokohama" (Yokohama: 2013), http://www.city.yokohama.lg.jp/ondan/english/pdf/policies/mid-term-plan-of-the-city-of-yokohama.pdf.

20 Table R20 from the following sources: REN21 database; IEA, World Energy Outlook 2013, Energy Access Database, http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/resources/energydevelopment/energyaccessdatabase/; submissionsfrom report contributors.

21 Table R21 from IEA, op. cit. note 20