Acknowledgements

This report was commissioned by REN21 and produced in collaboration with a global network of research partners. Financing was provided by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the United Arab Emirates. A large share of the research for this report was conducted on a voluntary basis.

The UN Secretary-General's initiative Sustainable Energy for All mobilises global action to achieve universal access to modern energy services, double the global rate of energy efficiency, and double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030. REN21's Renewables 2014 Global Status Report contributes to this initiative by demonstrating the role of renewables in increasing energy access. A section on distributed renewable energy—based on input from local experts primarily from developing countries—illustrates how renewables are providing needed energy services and contributing to a better quality of life through the use of modern cooking, heating/ cooling, and electricity technologies. As the newly launched Decade for Sustainable Energy for All (2014-2024) unfolds, REN21 will work closely with the SE4ALL Initiative towards achieving its three objectives.

RESEARCH DIRECTION AND LEAD AUTHORSHIP

Janet L. Sawin

(Sunna Research and WorldWatch Institute)

Freyr Sverrisson

(Sunna Research)

SECTION AUTHORS

Kanika Chawla (REN21 Secretariat)

Christine Lins (REN21 Secretariat)

Angus McCrone (Bloomberg New Energy Finance)

Evan Musolino (WorldWatch Institute)

Lily Riahi CUNEP)

Janet L. Sawin

(Sunna Research and WorldWatch Institute)

Ralph Sims (Massey University)

Jonathan Skeen (Emergent Energy)

Freyr Sverrisson (Sunna Research)

SPECIAL ADVISOR

Ralph Sims (Massey University)

PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND GSR COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT

Rana Adib (REN21 Secretariat)

Kanika Chawla (REN21 Secretariat)

RESEARCH AND COMMUNICATION SUPPORT (REN21 SECRETARIAT)

Martin Hullin

Sarah Leitner

Stefano Mazzaccaro

Hannah Murdock

Laura E. Williamson

Glen Wright

EDITING, DESIGN, AND LAYOUT

Lisa Mastny, editor (WorldWatch Institute)

weeks.de Werbeagentur GmbH, design

PRODUCTION

REN21 Secretariat, Paris, France

LEAD AUTHOR EMERITUS

Eric Martinot (Institute for Sustainable Energy Policy)

LEAD REGIONAL AND COUNTRY RESEARCHERS

ASEAN

Katarzyna Chojnacka, Thachatat Kuvarakul (ASEAN Centre for Energy, GIZ)

East Asia

Christopher Dent (University of Leeds)

Eastern and Southern Africa

Dennis Kibira (African Solar Designs); Natasha Kloppers, Jonathan Skeen (Emergent Energy)

ECOWAS

David Koman Achi (AD Solar + AD Education Energie); Adeola Adebiyi, Nicola Bugatti, Eder Semedo(ECREEE); Katie Auth, Tristram Thomas (WorldWatch Institute)

Central and Eastern Europe

Ulrike Radosch (Austrian Energy Agency, enerCEE)

Western Europe

Peter Bickel (ZSW); Jan Bruck, Charlotte Cuntz, Tatjana Regh, Mona Rybicki (Germanwatch)

Latin America and Caribbean

Gonzalo Bravo (Fundación Bariloche); Sandra Chavez (IRENA); Milena Gonzalez (WorldWatch Institute); ArnaldoVieira de Carvalho(IDB)

Brazil

Suani Coelho, Maria Beatriz Monteiro (CENBIO); Renata Grisoli (MGM Innova); Camilla Ramos (CELA)

Canada

Jose Etcheverry (York University)

Chile

Jose Emiliano Detta (IDB)

China

Frank Haugwitz (Asia Europe Clean Energy (Solar) Advisory)

Colombia

Javier Eduardo Rodríguez (Mining and Energy Planning Unit, Colombia)

Ecuador

Pablo Carvajal (Ministry of Strategic Sectors, Ecuador)

Fiji

Atul Raturi (University of the South Pacific)

France

Romain Zissler(ISEP)

Ghana

Kwabena Ampadu Otu-Danquah (Ghana Energy Commission)

Honduras

Jose Emiliano Detta (IDB)

India

Shirish Garud (TERI)

Italy

Noemi Magnanini (GSE)

Japan

Tetsunari lida, Hironao Matsubara (ISEP); Mika Ohbayashi (JREF)

Jordan

Samer Zawaydeh (AEE)

Kuwait

Adam Weber (Clean Energy Business Council)

Lithuania

Inga Valuntiene (COWI Lietuva)

Mali

Cheick Ahmed Sanogo (AMADER)

Mauritius

Fabiani Appavou (Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, Mauritius)

Morocco

Philippe Lempp (GIZ)

Nepal

Mukesh Ghimire(AEPC)

Nicaragua

Lâl Marandin (Pelican SA)

Norway

Benjamin Sovacool (AU Herning)

Oman

Ali Al-Resheidi (Oman Public Authority for Electricity and Water)

Philippines

Rafael Senga (WWF)

Portugal

Lara Ferreira (APREN); Luisa Branquinho Silverio (DGGE)

Senegal

brahima Niane (Ministry for Energy, Senegal)

South Korea

Sanghoon Lee (Korean Society for New and Renewable Energy); Kwanghee Yeom (KFEM)

Spain

Sofia Martinez (IDAE)

Sweden

Benjamin Sovacool (AU Herning)

Tanzania

Chris Greacen (Palang Thai)

Thailand

Chris Greacen (Palang Thai); Sopitsuda Tongsopit (Energy Resource Institute)

Togo

Dodji Agbezo (JVE Togo)

Turkey

Mustafa Sezgin (TENVA); TanaySidki Uyar (Eurosolar)

United Arab Emirates

Dane McQueen (MoFA, UAE)

Uruguay

Pablo Caldeiro Sarli, Gabriela Horta, Alejandra Reyes (Uruguay Ministry of Industry, Energy & Mining)

LEAD TOPICAL CONTRIBUTORS

Bioenergy

Patrick Lamers (Mountain View Research); Eija Alakangas (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland); Sribas Bhattacharya (IISWBA); Helena Chum (NREL); Jaqueline Daniel-Gromke (German Biomass Research Centre); Matthias Edel (German Energy Agency); Anselm Eisentraut (IEA); Alessandro Flammini (FAO); Uwe Fritsche (UNAS); Karin Haara (WBA); Martin Junginger (Utrecht University); Heinz Kopetz (WBA); Bharadwaj Kummamuru (WBA); Andrew Lang (WBA); Benoit Lebot (UNDP); Julia Munch (Fachverband Biogas e.V.); Agata Przadka (European Biogas Association); Robert Rapier (Merica International)

Concentrating Solar Thermal Power

Elena Dufour, Luis Crespo Rodriguez (ESTELA); Fredrick Morse (Morse Associates Inc.)

Distributed Renewable Energy

Bozhil Kondev (GIZ); Ernesto Macias Galan (ARE); Hari Natarajan (GIZ-IGEN); Yasemin Erboy (UN Foundation); Akanksha Chaurey (IT power); Debajit Palit (TERI); Heike Volkmer (GIZ); Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (IDB); Michael Hofman (MIF); Jiwan Acharya, Fely Arriola (ADB); Gabriela Azuela, Koffi Ekouevi (World Bank); Frank Haugwitz (Asia Europe Clean Energy (Solar) Advisory Co. Ltd.); Gonzalo Bravo (Fundación Bariloche); Caroline McGregor (Global Leap, U.S. Department of Energy); Wim van Ness (SNV Netherlands Development Organisation); Emmanuel Ackom (GNESD); João Arsénio (TESE); Morgane Benard (Sunna Design); Paul Bertheau (Reiner Lemoine Institut); Adam Camenzuli (Karibu Solar); Helene Connor (HELIO International); Leslie Cordes (GACC); Johan de Leeuw(Wind Energy Solutions BV); Johanna Diecker (GOGLA); Julie Ipe (GACC); Alex Lima (Electrobras); Chandirekera Makuyana (SNV Netherlands Development Organisation); Tijana Manitašević (Strawberry Energy); Lal Marandin (SE4ALL Nicaragua); Godfrey Ogbemudia (CREDO; Eromosele Omomhenle; Ewah Otu Eleri (ICEED Nigeria); Henrique Pancini (UNCTAD); Ruben Stegbauer (Solar Aid); Dipti Vaghela (International Rivers); Nancy Wimmer(microSOLAR))

Geothermal Energy

Benjamin Matek (GEA); Philippe Dumas (EGEC); Luis Carlos Gutiérrez-Negrín (Geotermia, Mexican Geothermal Association)

Green Purchasing and Labeling

Joß Bracker (OEKO); Jenny Heeter (NREL); Jennifer Martin (Center for Resource Solutions)

Heat Pumps/ Heating and Cooling

Thomas Nowak (European Heat Pump Association)

Hydropower/ Ocean Energy

Simon Smith, Richard Taylor (IHA); Christine van Oldeneel, Pilar Ocon (Hydropower Equipment Association)

Jobs

Rabia Ferroukhi, Arslan Khalid, Álvaro López-Peña (IRENA); Michael Renner (Worldwatch Institute)

Policy

Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes (BEE, EREF); Maryke van Staden (ICLEI); Fabiani Appavou (Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, Mauritius); Karolina Daszkiewicz (IEA)

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Pedro Filipe Paralta Carqueija, Jyoti Prasad Painuly (UNEP Risø Centre); Thibaud Voïta (IPEEC); Curt Garrigan (UNEP)

Renewable Energy Costs

Michael Taylor (IRENA)

Renewable Energy Statistics

Yasmina Abdelilah, Michael Waldron (IEA); Zuzana Dobrotkova; Olivier Lavagne d'Ortigue (IRENA); Rana Adib, Laura E. Williamson (REN21 Secretariat)

Solar General

David Renné (ISES)

Solar PV

Gaëtan Masson (IEA-PVPS, iCARES Consulting); GTM Research PV Pulse; Denis Lenardic (pvresources)

Solar Thermal Heating and Cooling

Franz Mauthner (AEE INTEC); Bärbel Epp (Solrico); Jan-Olof Dalenbäck (Chalmers University of Technology); EASolar Heating and Cooling Programme

System Transformation

Lily Riahi (UNEP); Travis Bradford (Prometheus Institute); Bianca Barth (BSW); Cynthia Hunt Jähne (SEPA); Scott Sklar (Stella Group)

Transport

Nicolai Bader, Armin Wagner (GIZ); Heather Allen (TRL)

Wind Power

Shruti Shukla, Steve Sawyer (GWEC); Feng Zhao (Navigant Research); Stefan Gsänger, Jean-Daniel Pitteloud (WWEA); Aris Karcanias (FTI Consulting); Shi Pengfei, Liu Minghui (CWEA)

REVIEWERS AND OTHER CONTRIBUTORS

Sheikh Adil (Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development); Asad Ali Ahmed (World Bank); Kathleen Araujo (Harvard Kennedy School of Government); Timothy Barker (Stimulate Systems); Ausilio Bauen (Imperial College London); Morgan Bazilian (NREL); Luca Benedetti (GSE); Farid Bensebaa (NRC); Edgar Blaustein; Pierre Boileau (IEA); Tom Bradley (Narec Distributed Energy); Emmanuel Branche (EDF); Christian Breyer (Lappeenranta University of Technology); Mary Brunisholz (IEA-PVPS); Ines del Campo Colmenar (CENER); Francoise D'Estais (UNEP); Pedro Dias (ESTIF); Dominique Diouf (Batan HBDO); Jens Drillisch (KFW); Michael Eckhart (Citigroup Inc.); Martha Ekkert (BMWi); Daniel Kofi Essien (IRELP); Pancaldi Estella (GSR); Emily Evans (NREL); Paolo Frankl (IEA); Lew Fulton (UC Davis); Alexander Gerlach (Q-Cells); Jacopo Giuntoli (Institute for Energy and Transport); Andreas Häberle (PSE); Niklas Hagelberg (UNEP); Jacob Ipsen Hansen (UNEP Risø Centre); Andrea Hilfrich (E-Control); Julien Jacquot (GERES); Uli Jakob (Green Chiller Verband für Sorptionskälte e.V.); El Mostafa Jamea (ERDDS); Franck Jesus (GEF); Manik Jolly (World Bank); Wim Jonker Klunne (CSIR); Anthony Jude (ADB); Sung Moon Jung (IPEEC); Jasmeet Khurana (Bridge to India); Ansgar Kiene (World Future Council); Matthias Kimmel (Duke University); Johannes Kirsch (ZVEI); Diana Kraft-Schäfer (German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers' Association - ZVEI); Bente Kruckenberg(DJ. Energi); Arun Kumar (NT Roorkee); Maryse Labriet (ENERIS); Fanny-Pomme Langue (AEBIOM); Krzysztof Laskowski (Euroheat & Power); Jonah Letovsky (Sciences Po); Noam Lior (University of Pennsylvania); Detlef Loy (Loy Energy Consulting); Birger Madsen; Alessandro Marangonl (Althesys); Adam Markusfalvi-Toth; H. Mitavachan (Oldenburg University); Daniel Mugnier (TECSOL SA); Nurzat Myrsalieva (RCREEE); Kevin Nassiep (SANEDI); Hans-Christoph Neidlein (PV Magazine); Jan Erik Nielsen (PlanEnergi, IEA-SHC); Bruce Nordman (LBNL); Ingrid Nyström (F3 Centre); Willington Ortiz (Wuppertal Institute); Binu Parthan (SEA); Céline Payet (EIB); Martin Pehnt (Institute für Energie und Umwelforschung Heidelberg GmbH); Tobias Persson, Mattias Svensson (Swedish Gas Centre); Liming Qiao (GWEC); Peter Rae; Heather Rosmarin (Amazon Watch); Burkhard Sanner(EGEC); Raphael Santos (Ministry of Mines and Energy Brazil); Arne Schweinfurth (GIZ); Reinoud Segers (Statistics Netherlands); Alexandra Seibt (Wuppertal Institute); JoonkyungSeong (World Bank); Anoop Singh (Indian Institute of Technology); Virginia Sonntag O'Brien; Ibrahim Soumaila (ECREEE); Djaheezah Subratty (UNEP); Sven Teske (Greenpeace International); Uwe Trenkner (Trenkner Consulting); Nico Tyabji (BNEF); Eric Usher (UNEP); Olola Vieyra (UNEP); Clare Wenner (UK Renewable Energy Association); Chris Werner (Hanergy); Marcus Wiemann (ARE); William Wills (EOS Environmental); Johan Agergaard Winberg (DJ. Energi)

The Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment report (GTR), formerly Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment, was first published by the Frankfurt School -UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance in 2011. This annual report was produced previously (starting in 2007) under UNEP's Sustainable Energy Finance Initiative (SEFI). It grew out of efforts to track and publish comprehensive information about international investments in renewable energy according to type of economy, technology, and investment.

The GTR is produced jointly with Bloomberg New Energy Finance and is the sister publication to the REN21 Renewables Global Status Report (GSR). The latest edition was released in April 2014 and is available for download at www.fs-unep-centre.org.

The Renewables Global Status Report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It enables policymakers, industry, investors, and civil society to make INFORMED DECISIONS.

The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast.

The Renewables Global Status Report relies on UP-TO-DATE RENEWABLE ENERGY DATA, provided by an INTERNATIONAL NETWORK of more than 500 contributors, researchers, and authors.