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SOURCES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY POTENTIALS
Hoogwijk, M., and W. Graus, 2008. Global potential of renewable energy sources: a literature assessment. For Ren21. Ecofys, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 45 pp. For wind, the regional breakdown was back-calculated using regional assumptions listed within the document. The technical potential takes into account the geographic restrictions (urban areas and protected areas), and technical limitations.
Goldemberg, J. (ed) 2000. World Energy Assessment: Energy and the Challenge of Sustainability. New York: UNDP. Source is (5) for wind and solar. For biomass, a compilation of sources is considered.
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Krewitt, W., K. Nienhaus, C. Kiebmann, C. Capone, E. Stricker, W. Graus, M. Hoogwijk, N. Supersberger, U. Win-terfield, and S. Aschenbeck, 2009. Role and potential of renewable energy and energy efficiency for global energy supply. German Aerospace Centre, Stuttgart, Germany.
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Calculation based on World Energy Council (2010). Survey of energy resources. London. ISBN: 978 0 946121 021.
Hoogwijk (2004): On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources. PhD Thesis, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. ISBN: 90-393-3640-7. Wind is based on the CRU monthly time series 1961-1990 from 3615 stations. For biomass, crops 2100 high scenario (A1) was taken, as the sum of abandoned land, low productive and rest land (EJ / y).
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Helio international (2009). Energy Systems – Vulnerability, Adaptation, Resilience (VAR). Country profiles for 10 countries.
Electric technical potential from IPCC upcoming publication 3km estimated to 5,200 TWh (18.8 EJ/y). 2015 forecasted generation 10.3 TWh (6.5 direct, 3.8 electric). The potential for the Great Rift Valley announced for the launch of the UNEP / GEF programme was said to be 4GW. With a capacity factor of 77% (current Kenyan capacity factors for electricity from (7)), this leads to 27 TWh/y.