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Bailis, R., Ezzati, M. and Kammen, D. (2005) Impacts of Biomass and Petroleum Energy Futures in Africa. Science Magazine, 1 April 2005, vol. 308, pp. 98-103.

BMVBS (2010) Globale und regionale Verteilung von Bio-massepotenzialen. Status-quo und Möglichkeiten der Präzisierung. BMVBS-Online-Publikation, Nr. 27/2010. German Biomass Reserach Institute. Leipzig, Germany. ISSN 1869-9324.

Diaz-Chavez, R., Mutimba, S., Watson, H., Rodriguez-Sanchez, S. and Nguer, M. 2010. Mapping Food and Bioen-ergy in Africa. A report prepared on behalf of FARA. Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa. Ghana.

Economist (2011) When others are grabbing their land. May 5th.

ECN and UNDP (2005) Renewable Energy Masterplan. Energy Commission of Nigeria.

Edkins, M., Marquard, A., Winkler, H. (2010) South Africa's renewable energy policy roadmaps. Final Report – June 2010. Energy Research Center, University of Cape Town.

EPA (2010) Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions. Letter of the Ethiopian Environmental Protection Agency to the UNFCCC.

EPM consulting (2008) Etude de faisabilité pour une programme national de biogas domestique au Niger. Direction des Energies Renouvelables et des Energies Domestiques.

EREC/Greenpeace (2010) Energy revolution. A sustainable global energy outlook. Brussels/Amsterdam.

Foster, V. and Briceno-Garmendia, C. eds. (2010) Africa`s infrastructure. A time for transformation. Agence Française de Developpement/World Bank.

GIZ (2011) The potential of sustainable liquid biofuel production in Rwanda. A study on the agricultural, technical and economic conditions and food security. Eschenborn.

GTZ (2010) Agro-Industrial Biogas in Kenya – Potentials, Estimates for Tariffs, Policy and Business Recommendations. Study of Deutsches Biomasse Forschungs Zentrum (DBFZ) on behalf of GTZ, Renewable Energy Project Development Programme East Africa.

Gujba, H., Mulugetta, Y. and Azapagic, A. (2011) Power generation scenarios for Nigeria: An environmental and cost assessment. Energy Policy vol. 39, pp. 968-980.

IEA (2010) World energy outlook. Paris.

Khan, I.A. (2011) Identifying successful solutions adopted in developing countries to deliver energy. Presentation IEA, Paris, 13 May 2011.

Ministry of Energy and Mines (2011) Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program. Algiers.

Monari, L. (2011) Presentation Africa energy access challenges. IEA, Paris, 13 May 2011.

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UNDP and WHO (2009) The energy access situation in developing countries – a review on the least developed countries and sub-Saharan Africa. New York.

UN Population Division (2009) World urbanisation prospects.

UN Population Division (2008) World population prospects.

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Hoogwijk, M., and W. Graus, 2008. Global potential of renewable energy sources: a literature assessment. For Ren21. Ecofys, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 45 pp. For wind, the regional breakdown was back-calculated using regional assumptions listed within the document. The technical potential takes into account the geographic restrictions (urban areas and protected areas), and technical limitations.

Goldemberg, J. (ed) 2000. World Energy Assessment: Energy and the Challenge of Sustainability. New York: UNDP. Source is (5) for wind and solar. For biomass, a compilation of sources is considered.

Lu, X., M.B. McElroy, and J. Kiviluoma, 2009: Global potential for wind-generated electricity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(27): 10933-10939.

Krewitt, W., K. Nienhaus, C. Kiebmann, C. Capone, E. Stricker, W. Graus, M. Hoogwijk, N. Supersberger, U. Win-terfield, and S. Aschenbeck, 2009. Role and potential of renewable energy and energy efficiency for global energy supply. German Aerospace Centre, Stuttgart, Germany.

World Energy Council (1994): New renewable energy resources. A guide to the future, London, Kogan Page Limited.

Grubb, M.J., and N.I. Meyer, 1993: Wind energy: resources, systems and regional strategies. In: Johansson TB, Kelly H, Reddy AK, Williams R, eds. Renewable energy: Sources for fuels and electricity. Island Press, Washington, DC, 157-212.

Calculation based on World Energy Council (2010). Survey of energy resources. London. ISBN: 978 0 946121 021.

Hoogwijk (2004): On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources. PhD Thesis, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. ISBN: 90-393-3640-7. Wind is based on the CRU monthly time series 1961-1990 from 3615 stations. For biomass, crops 2100 high scenario (A1) was taken, as the sum of abandoned land, low productive and rest land (EJ / y).

WBGU (German Advisory Council on Global Change), 2004: World in Transition: Towards Sustainable Energy Systems. Earthscan, London, UK and Sterling, Virginia, 248 pp.

GIZ (2009). Energy-policy Framework Conditions for Electricity Markets and Renewable Energies. 16 Country Analyses.

GIZ (2009). Renewable Energies in East Africa. Regional report on potentials and markets. 5 country analyses.

GIZ (2009). Renewable Energies in West Africa. Regional report on potentials and markets. 17 country analyses.

Helio international (2009). Energy Systems – Vulnerability, Adaptation, Resilience (VAR). Country profiles for 10 countries.

Electric technical potential from IPCC upcoming publication 3km estimated to 5,200 TWh (18.8 EJ/y). 2015 forecasted generation 10.3 TWh (6.5 direct, 3.8 electric). The potential for the Great Rift Valley announced for the launch of the UNEP / GEF programme was said to be 4GW. With a capacity factor of 77% (current Kenyan capacity factors for electricity from (7)), this leads to 27 TWh/y.