Power Generation Policies

Most renewable energy support policies that were enacted or revised during 2013 focus on the power sector, as in past years.25 (See Figure 28). Around the world, a mix of regulatory policies, fiscal incentives, and public financing mechanisms— including feed-in policies, renewable portfolio standards (RPS), net metering, tax reductions or exemptions, grants, low-interest loans, and public competitive bidding/tendering—continued to be adopted to promote increased renewable power capacity or generation. In the majority of cases, countries have adopted a variety of mechanisms to produce the policy mix best tailored to their unique domestic circumstances.

As in recent years, the majority of actions relating to feed-in policies centered on modifications to existing feed-in tariffs (FITs) and feed-in premiums (FIPs), and only two countries added such policies in 2013. Kazakhstan enacted a newfeed-in policy, and Ecuador relaunched its FIT scheme (which expired in 2012) with a revised incentive structure. Ecuador's feed-in rates for bioenergy and geothermal were unchanged, but tariffs were amended for wind power (up 28.6%), CSP (down 19.4%), and tidal energy (down 27.3%), and support for solar PV was eliminated.26Ghana established rates for the FIT scheme that was adopted as part of the Renewable Energy Act of 2011.27

Reductions in feed-in rates continued in several countries. Many of these reductions were planned previously—often through mechanisms that were built into policy design—and were intended to ensure that financial support remained in line with changing market conditions. However, several European countries legislated reductions (or even removals) of support that were previously unplanned and in many cases enforced retroactively (i.e., on existing capacity), as noted below.

Germany continued to implement scheduled quarterly reductions to its FIT for solar PV (in addition to annual reductions for most other technologies), with solar PV rates falling monthly. (New rates are set every three months, and reductions depend on actual installations in the previous quarter.) Further reductions in support are expected as amendments to the Renewable Energy Act are pursued, with changes anticipated in 2014.28 The United Kingdom strengthened several FIT incentives (see below), but the degression mechanism, which is applied quarterly, resulted in reduced rates for solar PV systems of up to 50 kW.29Italy ceased feed-in support for new solar PV projects when the predetermined USD 9.22 billion (EUR 6.7 billion)i maximum support level was reached, and offered current operators the option to extend financial support for existing projects for an additional seven years, but at a reduced rate.30 The Netherlands revised technology support categories for the existing FIP support scheme and, separately, suspended support for new solar PV projects after the budget cap was reached in August 2013.31

i - CARICOM comprises Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago.

POLICY MAPS

Figure 26. Countries with Renewable Energy Policies, Early 2014

Figure 27. Countries with Renewable Energy Policies, 2005

144 COUNTRIES HAVE DEFINED RENEWABLE ENERGY TARGETS

Figure 28. Number of Countries with Renewable Energy Policies, by Type, 2010-Early 2014

Figure does not show all policy types in use. Countries considered when at least one national or sub-national policy is in place.

Elsewhere in Europe, new steps were taken to weaken or remove feed-in policies. The Czech Republic passed legislation to remove FIT support for all renewable technologies as of January 2014; Greece enacted FIT cuts to be enforced retroactively as of June 2013, with an additional round of retroactive cuts proposed in early 2014; and Lithuania reduced FIT rates significantly in early 2013.32Portugal abolished the FIT system for new projects.33 In addition, the scheme for existing wind facilities was revised such that operators can choose to provide an annual contribution— USD 6,900-8,000/ MW(EUR 5,000-5,800/ MW) overthe period 2013-2020—in exchange for an extension of FIT terms from five to seven years. In late 2013, Portugal also reduced its 2014 rates for existing small-scale solar PV by an additional 60%.34

Slovakia halved preferential support for renewables, reducing the cap under its FIT from 10 MW to only 5 MW of grid-connected capacity; however, the full incentive remains available for wind power.35Spain removed support for existing capacity that qualified for the FIT prior to the moratorium on new projects, which was set in 2012; the country replaced FIT payments with market prices backed by a guaranteed pre-tax return of 7.5%.36Ukraine required that, in order to qualify under the feed-in policy, projects use technologies with a domestically sourced share of 30% as of January 2013, and 50% as of January 2014.37

China amended its existing solar PV FIT to allow for three regionally differentiated support schemes with reduced rates for ground-mounted solar PV projects in solar-rich regions.38Japan reduced solar PV FIT rates by 10% in 2013, and by an additional 11% in early 2014.39 As of early 2013, the degression rate for Malaysia's FIT was set to 8% for plants smaller than 24 kW, and to 20% for larger plants.40

A few countries with feed-in policies increased their tariffs and extended support during 2013. Denmark introduced a higher FIP tariff for small-scale solar PV and raised the revised wind tariffs from USD 0.04 / kWh (EUR 0.03 / kWh) to rates capped at USD 0.11 / kWh (EUR 0.08 / kWh).41France raised FIT rates for rooftop solar PV systems by 5%, and enacted a 10% FIT bonus for systems manufactured in Europe. Despite an initial ruling by the European Court of Justice that France'swind FIT constituted unlawful state aid, the European Commission upheld its legality.42Ireland introduced FITs to support the development of 30 MW of ocean energy capacity.43 In the U.K., the 5 MW project capacity cap was doubled in order to extend FIT support to community projects of up to 10 MW in size.44

In Asia, China adopted a new incentive that provides distributed solar PV projects with an additional USD 0.07 / kWh (CNY 0.42 / kWh).45Indonesia expanded its FIT scheme to include support for solar PV projects that meet a 40% local content requirement.46 Japan raised FIT rates for offshore wind by 63%.47Thailand introduced a new FIT category to support distributed solar generation, with the goal of installing 200 MW of rooftop solar PV in 2013; extended the contract term for FIT support from 10 to 25 years; and defined a three-tiered FIT rate system (based on building size and classification) to support residential and commercial solar PV installations.48

Figure 29. Share of Countries with Renewable Energy Policies by Income Group, 2004-Early 2014

Countries according to annual GNI per capita levels, per World Bank, 2014.

i - All exchange rates in this section and elsewhere in the GSR are as of 31 December 2013, and are calculated using the OANDA currency converter (http://www.oanda.com/currency/converter/).

Figure 30. Developing and Emerging Countries with Renewable Energy Policies, 2004, 2009, and Early 2014

Elsewhere, Algeria extended FIT support for solar and wind power technologies by introducing a two-tiered payment structure offering fixed-rate tariffs for 5 years and an adjusted rate for the following 15 years; South Africa introduced new time-of-day differentiated tariffs to spur the development of CSP.49Uganda revised its existing FIT programme to offer additional incentives, access to long-term commercial financing, and security to project developers, and also reinstated solar PV as a qualifying technology for 2014.50 In Turkey, applications opened for solar PV and CSP (600 MW) for the first time under the FIT scheme that was enacted in 2011.51

A number of feed-in policy changes were made at the sub-national level in 2013 and early 2014 in Australia, Canada, India, and the United States. South Australia amended its FIT to reduce rates for existing projects and eliminated support for new projects as of October 2013.52 Over the course of four days in 2013, Western Australia enacted and then reversed a decision to halve FIT rates for residential solar PV systems, while Australia's Northern Territory cancelled its FIT as of January 2013, with support now coming from renewable energy credits.53

Nova Scotia, Canada, added FIT rates for tidal arrays to its existing programme. Ontario revised its FIT in response to an internal review and to the World Trade Organization (WTO) ruling on the province's domestic content requirement: the requirement was reduced to a local content share of 19-28% (depending on technology) in mid-2013, and then removed entirely in December.54 While Ontario maintained existing rates for wind power, it increased rates for hydropower, bioenergy, and biogas, and reduced them for solar PV (down as much as 39%) and landfill gas (down 31%).55 For all renewable energy projects larger than 500 kW, Ontario replaced FIT support with a competitive bidding scheme.56

In India, the Gujarat Electricity Regulatory Commission retained its FIT despite the state government's pressure to reduce rates.57 In the United States, no new FITs were added for the second consecutive year (although legislation was introduced to establish a statewide FIT in Maine), keeping the number of states with FITs at five. Rhode Island amended its existing FIT to require that small-scale (50 kW to 1.5 MW, depending on the technology) distributed generation projects submit competitive bids to determine the rate of financial support, as is required for large-scale projects.58

RPS laws or "quotas" mandating the use of specific shares or quantities of renewable power are in place in 25 countries at the national level and 54 states/provinces in the United States, Canada, and India. No new countries, states, or provinces adopted RPS laws in 2013, but several states and provinces enacted revisions.

In the United States, although the number of states with RPS policies remained at 29 by year's end, RPS policies came under increasing political pressure during 2013.59 There were efforts to weaken or eliminate existing laws in many states, and reviews were undertaken in 16 states.60 In response to these reviews, several states introduced changes that were both positive and negative for renewables. California revised its regulations to allow its Public Utilities Commission to raise the RPS requirement without legislation, but as of early 2014, the RPS goal remained at 33%.61 Minnesota revised its RPS policy to include a 1.5% solar PV requirement for utilities.62 Colorado doubled its renewable requirement for co-operative utilities and created a distributed renewable generation requirement, although the revised legislation also expanded the list of eligible technologies to include coal-mine methane, synthetic gas, and fuel cells.63

The Energy Act adopted in the U.K. in 2013 established a number of new provisions, including the 2017 phaseout of the Renewables Obligation for new participants.64 Tamil Nadu, India, overturned its requirement for solar power to meet 3-6% of industrial electricity demand.65

New net metering policies were adopted in 5 countries at the national level in 2013, bringing the total to 43 countries. In Europe, Greece enacted a net metering programme for small-scale solar PV and small-scale wind plants; Latvia enacted a net metering policy that entered into force on 1 January 2014; and Ukraine launched a net metering programme that requires utilities, as of 1 January 2014, to connect residential solar PV systems to the grid within five days of project completion and the filing of an interconnection request.66 In Central America, Honduras approved net metering for systems smaller than 250 kW.67 Additionally, the Philippines adopted new interconnection standards, bringing into effect the net metering policy that was legally established in 2008.68

SIDEBAR 7. INNOVATING ENERGY SYSTEMS: TRANSFORMATION OF THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY

The rise of a variety of "disruptive" energy technologies (new products or markets that replace existing ones, such as distributed solar PV and wind power) as well as of demand-side efficiency measures is challenging the traditional business model of electric utilities in many liberalised electricity markets. Shifting and disappearing power loads and changing relative costs of various generating technologies undermine the economic viability of some existing generating assets, which may become stranded in a changing market.

Competition from new technologies can be disruptive in any industry and is not problematic in itself. Distributed generation, for example, can help reduce the load on the transmission and distribution network during peak demand periods, minimizing both the investment needed in these systems and the potential for outages (in turn reducing associated costs to the distribution utility). Moreover, many utilities faced challenges even before the rapid growth of wind and solar power, due to overinvestment in fossil generating capacity, declining natural gas prices in some countries, sluggish electricity demand growth, and a further slowdown in demand caused by the financial crisis. Europe's top 20 utilities, for example, have lost more than half of their value since their peak in 2008. Solar and wind power have simply added to the disruption.

Rising shares of wind and solar power have reduced electricity prices and the number of kilowatt-hours needed from thermal generation, particularly at times of peak mid-day demand (in the case of PV) when many utilities profit the most from higher market prices. Some wholesale markets have seen significant reductions in power prices (even negative pricing) during periods of high generation and low demand, which has squeezed out of the merit order (relatively) clean and flexible natural gas as well as coal/lignite. In response, many large utilities in Australia, Europe, the United States, and elsewhere are pushing back against renewables, claiming that they are increasing electricity costs and arguing for an end to policy support for renewable power.

The dramatic decline in solar PV module prices, in particular, has furthered a shift from conventional electricity models—with a one-way flow of electricity (supply-demand model)—towards a bidirectional model in which power consumers can also become producers. By 2013, more than 3 million EU households produced their own electricity using solar PV, and, by early 2014, 16% of Germany's businesses were electricity self-sufficient, up 50% from a year earlier.

The rapid loss of revenue from ratepayers raises questions such as who will pay for the system reliability and reserve power that utilities have always provided? Who will invest in needed infrastructure improvements? And what share of ancillary services can renewable energy provide? Some say that a new utility business model is needed, and many utilities agree. A recent global survey of utility executives showed expectations of the need to change business models to survive, with the highest anticipation of transformation in Asia. German utility giant EnBW went so far as to declare that its conventional business model could "no longer work."

Some utilities are responding by increasing their investment in renewables. Whereas a decade ago, utilities in Europe accounted for less than 10% of investment in large-scale renewable energy projects, they now make up more than half of the pipeline of future projects. Coal India has begun developing solar PV projects across India. Other utilities are shifting away from traditional centralised power generation and moving into "downstream" activities, or joiningforces with renewable energy interests. Some utilities in the United States are creating new business models to profit from solar power: for example, Duke Energy and Edison International have invested in a firm that is financing solar projects, and PSE&G of New Jersey is making loans to solar PV customers.

Increasingly, stakeholders contend that the business of meeting energy needs is moving away from a volume-based supply model, underpinned by asset ownership, to a service-based model that builds on existing customer relationships, finds new ways to meet people's needs, and captures the values associated with renewable energy and distributed generation. Instead of earning revenue for the energy consumed (USD per MWh), revenues would be based on the energy services provided, demand charges, and/or capacity-based pricing (USD per MW).i In Germany, both RWE and EnBW plan to adopt a business model that accommodates distributed self-generation, with EnBW planning to divest up to 80% of its generation and trading business by 2020. However, capacity-based pricing can also undermine energy efficiency efforts and discourage investments in renewables, leading some to argue in favour of a hybrid model.

Innovation in the private sector will require an effective enabling policy framework. In many countries, discussions are under way about regulatory reforms needed to support this transition. This begs the questions: What future functions should utilities provide? Which mechanism can appropriately compensate companies for performing those functions? Energy market design reforms include incentivising ancillary services through mechanisms like capacity payments and flexibility premiums, and establishing the right price signals to address misalignments between incentives to distributed electricity system customers, and the cost and value to the electricity system (e.g., network benefit payments, network tariffs that reflect the transmission and distribution costs, and network service charges).

The United Kingdom, for example, has introduced a common pricing methodology for electricity networks, whereby decentralised electricity generators are offered a positive network tariff (credit) for feeding power into local networks. The U.S. state of California is experimenting with "on-bill financing" of high-value energy efficiency and on-site renewable energy. Electric utility customers select pre-qualified technologies and service providers, while the utility loses power sales but still profits by "lending" its money.

Countries with an "energy-only" power market, such as Germany, plan increasingly to implement "capacity markets" that address the need for system balancing. To integrate higher shares of variable renewables into electricity markets, more dispatchable capacity is also needed. Yet traditional peaking plants are being used less—and thereby becoming less profitable—as shares of renewable energy increase. New market designs are needed to incentivise this reserve capacity or increase flexible generation.

Power markets should be designed to provide the proper economic incentive for a least-cost and efficient mix of peaking, cycling, and baseload generating units in a system that accommodates ever-growing shares of variable renewables. New market designs will need to balance the choice between currently available solutions to system balancing (such as increasing peaking capacity) and developing alternatives, such as increasing the flexibility of new gas plants, installing diverse types of energy storage at various scales, and pursuing demand-side response options mediated by smart-grid solutions.

The "Innovating Energy Systems" sidebar is a regular feature of the Global Status Report that focuses on advances in energy systems related to renewable energy integration and system transformation

i - This would entail reforming the process of retailing decentralised electricity/competitive and liberalised markets, particularly for retail power; enacting enabling regulations for self-generation; and adopting incentives such as time-of-use tariffs, dynamic pricing, peak pricing, and the delivery of new energy services.

Source: See Endnote 99 for this section.

Only two countries revised net metering policies at the national level in 2013: Denmark restricted the availability of payments for self-generation by moving from yearly to hourly net metering and setting an eligibility cap of 20 MW worth of solar PV systems, and the Netherlands removed its 5,000 kW incentive cap, thereby increasing the amount of electricity generation that is eligible to receive support under its net metering scheme.69

At the state level, there were a number of developments in 2013 and early 2014, with four Indian states—Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Gujarat, and Uttarakhand—all starting net metering programmes for rooftop solar PV systems.70 Uttarakhand ntroduced net metering for rooftop solar PV at a rate of USD 0.15/kWh (INR 9.20/kWh) for installations of 300 W-100 kW with battery backup, and up to 500 kW systems without batteries; total installations are limited to 5 MW.71 Tamil Nadu set a cap on its existing net metering scheme for solar PV systems, limiting it to 90% of a consumer's electricity consumption.72

In the United States, net metering policies remained in 43 states, Washington, D.C., and 4 territories. While no new policies were added in 2013, four states revised existing laws. California extended net metering (it was scheduled to be suspended in 2014), provided clarity on how to calculate the 5% capacity cap, and laid the foundation for the development of a new uncapped net metering scheme.73New York tripled its solar PV capacity cap, thereby opening the programme to more consumers; and Vermont raised the net metering cap from 4% of peak demand to 15%.74 In several other states, net metering faced significant utility opposition. InArizona, net metering was retained, but with a monthly fee of USD 0.70/kW to be applied for all new solar PV systems.75

Public competitive bidding, or tendering, continues to gain prominence, with the number of countries turning to public auctions increasing from 9 in 2009 to 55 by early 2014.76 Central and South American countries continue to be global leaders in renewable energy tenders. Brazil, which has held tenders for wind power for several years, included solar power projects for the first time in November, with 2.7 GW of solar power qualifying for the A-3 auction, although no contracts were awarded in that auction. Overall, Brazil's auctions awarded 4.7 GW of new wind capacity, 122 MW of solar PV, 700 MW of small hydropower, and 162 MW of bio-power during 2013.77Chile held its first CSP tender in 2013; Ecuador held its first auction for solar PV; Peru allocated USD 3.6 billion for tendering of renewable energy projects designated to come on line by 2016; and Uruguay launched multiple solar power tenders throughout the year.78 In Central America, El Salvador announced tendering for the allocation of 100 MW of wind and solar PV plants.79

In Europe, France launched a USD 275 million (EUR 200 million) tender for the construction of 80 MW of pilot ocean energy capacity, as well as a tender of USD 4.8 billion (EUR 3.5 billion) for 1,000 MW of offshore wind capacity.80 Also in 2013, Italy held its second wind auction to support the development of 400 MW of new capacity; and Norway awarded USD 3.3 billion worth of onshore wind projects as part of a plan to triple its wind power capacity to over 2 GW by 2020.81Russia launched its first tenders for renewable energy, selecting 39 projects that totalled 504 MW of new capacity, including 399 MW of solar PV projects.82 In addition, a USD 2.6 billion (RUB 85 billion) programme was approved to allocate 1.2 GW of solar PV projects through public tenders by 2020.83 The United Kingdom announced plans to hold joint auctions for wind and solar power capacity for the first time in 2014.84

In Africa, Egypt launched a tender for the construction of the nation's first solar PV plant of 200 MW, and South Africa set dates for its third round of CSP tenders.85Kuwait held auctions to award licences for the construction of 50 MW of CSP capacity.86

In India, Phase 2 of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission was launched with a call for bids to award 750 MW of grid-connected solar PV contracts across the country, although the tender was delayed twice as of early 2014.87 At the sub-national level, the state of Karnataka opened bidding for 130 MW of solar power capacity, while Punjab awarded contracts to 29 solar power developers for a cumulative capacity of 250 MW.88

Other types of auctions also took place to advance the deployment of renewable energy. The United States awarded the nation's first licence for offshore wind development, and subsequently held two additional auctions for offshore licences.89

Countries continued to support the renewable energy sector through a mix of fiscal incentives and public financing aimed at helping to overcome the various cost barriers that challenge renewable energy deployment, including high upfront costs for renewables, continued high subsidies for fossil and nuclear energy, and failure to internalise environmental and social costs of energy production and use. A number of incentives were revised or introduced in 2013 and early 2014. For example, India reintroduced the Generation Based Incentive (GBI) scheme that had expired in April 2012, with payments of USD 0.01/kWh (50 paise/kWh), and applied it retroactively to include projects that were commissioned during the period of lapse.90 China introduced a 50% value-added tax (VAT) rebate for solar power plant operators as well as tax incentives to spur the development of hydropower, and Iran established a fund to support renewable electricity projects.91

In Europe, Denmark launched a new grant scheme that provided USD 46.1 million (DKK 250 million) in 2013, and allocated USD 92.3 million (DKK 500 million) annually from 2014 to 2020, to promote the deployment of renewable energy technologies (as well as district heating, co-generation, and energy efficiency) in energy-intensive industries.92 Ireland's Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan provided a combined USD 61.9 million (EUR 45 million) for testing facilities, and R&D for ocean energy.93 The U.K. increased the level of support for offshore wind producers under its green certificate scheme to 0.26 USD/ kWh (0.155 GBP/kWh), although contract terms were reduced from 20 to 15 years.94 In the United States, the state of New York pledged USD 1 billion in new funding to solar PV projects.95

Reductions to fiscal incentives also were seen during 2013. For example, France removed an 11% investment tax credit for solar PV equipment (the credit remained for solar water heaters); and the U.S. Production Tax Credit, which was extended in January 2013, expired at year's end for new renewable energy projects in the United States (but the credit still applies to projects that began construction in 2013).96

During 2013 and early 2014, taxes and fees on renewable energy continued to be introduced retroactively in some European countries that previously supported renewable technologies. Bulgaria enacted a 20% tax on revenues from solar PV and wind installations; the Czech Republic placed an open-ended tax of 10% on revenue from solar PV installations larger than 30 kW; and Greece enacted a 10% tax on revenue from renewable power generation, to be enforced retroactively.97 Taxes on self-consumption are being enacted or considered as well. On top of existing grid access restrictions and fees, Spain introduced a tax on the self-consumption of solar PV, while Germany has proposed a similar levy on electricity generated from rooftop systems larger than 10 kW.98

A number of new policies are being enacted around the world in an effort to adapt to rapidly changing challenges that are emerging with higher shares of variable renewable electricity. Policies to advance system integration continue to gain prominence. These include promotion of energy storage, demand-side management (DMS), and regulations that aid in the integration of renewables into national grid networks and energy markets. New market mechanisms continued to be introduced and refined in 2013.99 (See Sidebar 7.)

Singapore raised its cap on the total power provided by variable resources from 350 MW to 600 MW during periods of peak demand in 2013.100 China introduced a mandate requiring grid companies to purchase all solar electricity generated within their coverage areas.101 India allocated USD 6.9 billion (INR 430 billion) to a grid modernisation program—the Green Energy Corridor—to enable the integration of renewable energy sources.102

Policies to promote energy storage gained prominence at the national and sub-national levels in 2013 and early 2014. Japan introduced subsidies to cover two-thirds of the capital costs of lithium ion batteries installed with solar PV systems.103 In Canada, the provisions of Ontario's Long-Term Energy Plan were amended to include 50 MW of energy storage in the province's competitive procurement process.104 Puerto Rico's energy regulator revised its existing minimum technical requirements to mandate the incorporation of energy storage in new renewable energy projects, and the U.S. state of California introduced a mandate on investor-owned utilities to begin buying 200 MW of energy storage capacity by 2014, with a statewide goal to acquire 1.3 GW of storage capacity by 2020.105 In addition, Massachusetts introduced requirements on utilities to develop plans to introduce smart meters and increase investments in smart-grid technology over the next decade.106

To reduce what is often one of the largest hurdles faced by renewable energy project developers, some countries also revised their permitting processes. In 2013, Chile passed regulations to fast-track the process for renewable energy permitting from 700 to 150 days.107 France revised a number of wind permitting procedures; while Turkey revised electricity licensing procedures.108 In the United States, two separate pieces of legislation were adopted to streamline the permitting process for renewables, including refining regulatory oversight procedures and raising from 5 MW to 10 MW the maximum capacity for small-scale hydropower plant classification.109 In addition, the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) approved guidelines to allow for a "fast-track" interconnection process for certain renewable systems up to 5 MW in size, eliminating the need for them to undergo extensive interconnection studies.110

In an effort to balance utility concerns over idle generation capacity and inadequate transmission infrastructure, Gujarat, India, enacted new regulations restricting independent grid access—guaranteed in the Electricity Act of 2003 to consumers with a demand greater than or equal to 1 MW—by removing the ability of state distribution companies to enter into private power purchase agreements (PPAs) with out-of-state energy providers.111

25 Figure 28 based on past editions of the GSR and all sources listed in Endnote 1.

26 Enerdata, "Kazakhstan Adopts Energy Efficiency 2020 Programme and Feed-in Tariffs," 2 September 2013, http://www.enerdata.net/enerdatauk/press-and-publication/energy-news-001/kazakhstan-adopts-energy-efficiency-2020-programme-and-feed-tariffs_21910.html; in Ecuador, rates for biomass (11 U.S.cents/kWh) and geothermal (13.81 U.S.cents/kWh) were unchanged, wind tariffs were raised from 9.13 to 11.74 U.S.cents/kWh, CSP rates were lowered to 25 U.S.cents/kWh from 31 U.S.cents/kWh, and tidal energy rates were lowered to 32 U.S.cents/kWh (down from 44 U.S.cents/kWh), per BNEF and Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF), Climatescope 2013 (Washington, DC: 2013), http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getDocument.aspx?D0CNUM=38168432; Government of Ecuador, National Electricity Council, "Treatment for energy produced from non-conventional renewable energy resources (Regulation No.004 CONELEC/11)," April 2011, http://www.conelec.gob.ec/normativa_detalle.php?cd_norm=361.

27 CITI FM Online, "PURC to introduce special tariffs," 5 April 2013, http://www.citifmonline.com/index.php?id=1.1326767

28 GTM Research, PV News, June 2013; Government of Germany, Federal Network Agency, "EEG tariffs for PV systems," http://www.bundesnetzagentur.de/DE/Sachgebiete/ElektrizitaetundGas/UnternehmenJnstitutionen/ErneuerbareEnergien/Photovoltaik/DatenMeldgn_EEG-VergSaetze/DatenMeldgn_EEG-VergSaetze_node.html. Reduction rates were 1.8% per month between May and October 2013, 1.4% monthly between November 2013 and January 2014, and 1% monthly from February to April 2014, per Markus Wacket and Madeline Chambers, "Germany Ushers in Renewable Energy Reform," Reuters, 8 April 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/04/08/us-germany-energy-idUSBREA3716l20140408.

29 GTM Research, op. cit. note 28.

30 BNEF, Energy Weekin Review, 11-17 June 2013; Sinead Orlandi, "Italy: Rearrangement of the Conto Energia Scheme," Energy Observer, 15 March 2014, http://www.energyobserver.com/tekst.php?lang=2&ID=1978.

31 The Netherlands SDE+ feed-in premium support scheme provides technology-differentiated payments over a maximum contract length of 15 years. RES Legal, RAC 2013, 12 November 2013, http://www.res-legal.eu/search-by-country/netherlands/sources/t/source/src/rac-2012/; Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland, "Solar Subsidy Scheme Closed," 8 August 2013, http://www.agentschapnl.nl/subsidies-regelingen/subsidieregeling-zonnepanelen-gesloten.

32 "Feed-in Tariff table," PV Magazine, 12 December 2013; I lias Tsagas, "Czech Republic Ends FIT Program, Extends Solar Trax," PV Magazine, 16 September 2013, http://www.pv-magazine.com/news/details/beitrag/czech-republic-ends-fit-program-extends-solar-tax-_100012748/#axzz2nwMg7Z3c; Greece from GTM Research, op. cit. note 28; Renewable Energy World Editors, "Greek Government Proposes More Cuts to Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff," Renewable Energy World, 25 March 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/03/greek-government-proposes-more-cuts-to-renewable-energy-feed-in-tariff?cmpid=WNL-Wednesday-March26-2014; Lins Jegelevicius, "Lithuanian FIT Cuts Dampen Solar Development, But Net Metering May Rekindle Industry," Renewable Energy World, 18 November 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/11/lithuanian-fit-cuts-dampen-development-but-net-metering-may-rekindle-industry.

33 Ferreira, op. cit. note 17

34 Marie Latour, "Portugal: Drastic cuts to the feed-in tariff scheme," European Photovoltaic Industry Association, January 2014, http://www.photon.info/photon_news_detail_en.photon?id=83685; RES Legal, Electricity Promotion in Portugal, 6 November 2013, http://www.res-legal.eu/search-by-country/portugal/tools-list/c/portugal/s/res-e/t/promotion/sum/180/lpid/179/page.pdf?out=pdf.

35 In addition to wind power, the full FIT remained in place for large-scale CHP plants. Eclareon, Monthly Progress Update: Part of the project "Assessment of climate change policies in the context of the EU Semester" (Brussels: European Commission, 5 November 2013), http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/g-gas/progress/docs/progress_201310_en.pdf.

36 Frankfurt School-UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance and BNEF, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2013 (Frankfurt: 2013).

37 "Feed-in Tariff table," op. cit. note 32.

38 Regionally differentiated ratesfor ground-mounted solar in China have been set at either CNY 1/kWh (USD 0.163/kWh), CN Y 0.9/kWh (USD 0.147/kWh), or CNY 0.95/kWh (USD 0.155/kWh), per Solar Server, "China approves regional variations to feed-in tariff for solar PV," 3 November 2013, http://www.solarserver.com/solar-magazine/solar-news/current/2013/kw36/china-approves-regional-variations-to-feed-in-tariff-for-solar-pv-updated.html.

39 Chisake Watanabe, "Japan Gives Final Approval to 10% Tariff Cut for Solar Power," Bloomberg, 28 March 2013, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-03-29/japan-gives-final-approval-to-10-tariff-cut-for-solar-power.html; Yuka Obayashi and James Topham, "Japan Lifts Offshore Wind Tariff, Cuts Solar Prices, " Reuters, 25 March 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/25/japan-renewables-subsidies-idUSL4N0MM23520140325.

40 "Feed-in Tariff table," op. cit. note 32.

41 GWEC, op. cit. note 12.

42 Legifrance, "Arrêté du 7 janvier 2013 portant majoration des tarifsde l'électricité produite par certaines installations utilisant l'énergie radiative du soleil telles que visées au 3° de l'article 2 du décret n° 2000-1196 du 6 décembre 2000," 1 February 2013, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000027008908; Craig Morris, "EU Rules Against French FITsfor Wind," Renewables International, 16 January 2014, http://www.renewablesinternational.net/eu-rules-against-french-fits-for-wind/150/537/75762/; Paul Gipe, "EU Concludes French Feed-in Tariffsfor Wind Energy Permissable," Wind-Works, 28 March 2014, http://www.wind-works.org/cms/index.php?id=39&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=3037&cHash=8bc2af003adf136ba300d53af 143dacc.

43 Ocean Energy Systems, "Ireland's 1 Million Square Kilometers of Potential Ocean Energy," press release (Lisbon: February 2014), at http://www.ocean-energy-systems.org/news/rish_offshore_renewable_energy_development_plan/

44 PeterBennett, "DECCextends FiT funding for community projects up to 10 MW," Solar Power Portal, 3 July 2013, http://www.solarpowerportal.co.uk/news/decc_extends_fit_funding_for_community_projects_up_to_10mw_2356.

45 Xie Yu, "New policy boosts construction of solar plants," China Daily, 13 November 2013, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2013-09/13/content_16968866.htm.

46 Christopher Dent, University of Leeds, personal communication with REN21, 2 April 2014.

47 Yuka Obayashi and James Topham, "Japan Lifts Offshore Wind Tariff, Cuts Solar Prices," Reuters, 25 March 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/25/japan-renewables-subsidies-idUSL4N0MM23520140325.

48 Thailand's new rooftop solar PV FIT set rates at USD 0.21/kWh (THB 6.96/kWh) for systems under lOkW, USD 0.20/kWh (THB 6.56/kWh) for systems of 10-450 kW, and USD 0.19/kWh (THB 6.16/kWh) for systems of 450 kW-1 MW, per Thailand Energy Regulatory Commission, "The purchase of electricity from solar power installed on the roof," http://www.erc.or.th/ERCWeb2/Front/StaticPage/StaticPage.aspx?p=200&Tag=SolarRooftop; Government of Spain, "Boletin Oficial Del Estado," December 2012, http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2012/12/28/pdfs/BOE-A-2012-15649.pdf; Thailand's revised community solar FIT scheme set rates at THB 9.75/kWh for years 1-3, THB 6.5/kWh for years 4-10, and THB 4.5/kWh for years 11-25, per Government of Thailand, Joint Committee on the National Energy Policy: No.2/2556, 16 July 2013, http://www.eppo.go.th/nepc/kpc/kpc-145.html#7.

49 Algeria's FIT provides paymentonlyfora set numberof hours per year. After the cap is reached, electricity can be sold at market rates. Minister de l'Energie et des Mines, Journal Officiel de la Republique Algerienne N23, 23 April 2014, http://www.joradp.dz/FTP/jo-francais/2014/F2014023.pdf; new rates in South Africa are set at USD 0.16/kWh (ZAR 1.65/kWh) off-peak with peak rates of USD 0.38/kWh (ZAR 3.96/kWh), per Max Crompton, CSP Today, personal communication with REN21, 1 August 2013.

50 Uganda's FIT programme includes the introduction of a Premium Payment Mechanism, a Guarantee Facility, and a Private Finance Mechanism, per Tildy Bayar, "Uganda Launches nnovative Feed-in Tariff Program," Renewable Energy World, 2 July 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/07/uganda-launches-innovative-feed-in-tariff-programme?cmpid=WNL-Wednesday-July3-2013; Get FiT Uganda, "About GET FiT," http://www.getfit-uganda.org/information-for-developers/get-fit-solar-pv-component/.

51 FIT support is now guaranteed at a base rate of USD 0.133/kWh, ranging up to USD 0.20/kWh for solar PV and USD 0.225/kWh for CSP, per David Appleyard, "Solar Power Surges on Turkish Policy Backing," Renewable Energy World, 18 September 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/09/solar-power-surges-on-turkish-policy-backing?cmpid=SolarNL-Thursday-Septemberl9-2013.

52 Graham Armstrong, Renewable Energy in Australia: The Renewable Energy Target (RET), Feed-in-Tariffs (FITs), Green Power, Solar Hot Water-Heat Pumps and Some International Trends, Saturn Corporate Resources Pty Ltd., 26 June 2013.

53 Tildy Bayar, "Western Australia Backs Down on Solar Feed-in Tariff Cut," Renewable Energy World, 12 August 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/08/western-australia-backs-down-on-solar-feed-in-tariff-cut; "Feed-in Tariff table," op. cit. note 32.

54 Nova Scotia Department of Energy, Developmental Tidal Feed-in Tariff Program, 21 August 2013, http://www.novascotia.ca/energy/publications/Developmental-Tidal-Feed-in-Tariff-Program-Discussion-Paper.pdf; Ontario Power Authority, "Changes to Domestic Content and New FIT/microFIT Price Schedule," 16 August 2013, http://fit.powerauthority on.ca/newsroom/august-16-2013-program-update; GTM Research, PV News, January 2014; Lucy Woods, "Ontario eliminates renewables' domestic content requirement," PV Tech, 13 December 2013, http://www.pv-tech.org/news/ontario_eliminates_renewables_domestic_content_requirement.

55 Ontario Power Authority, "FIT/microFIT Schedule Changes," http://fit.powerauthority.on.ca/sites/default/files/news/2013-FIT-Price-Comparison-Table.pdf.

56 Paul Gipe, "Two Steps Forward, One Back: Ontario Cancels Feed-in Tariffs for Large Projects," Renewable Energy World, 10 June 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/06/two-steps-forward-one-back-ontario-cancels-feed-in-tariffs-for-large-projects.

57 Natalie Obiko Pearson, "India Rejects Petition for Retroactive Solar Tariff Cut," Renewable Energy World, 19 August 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/08/ndia-rejects-petition-for-retroactive-solar-tariff-cut.

58 Small-scale distributed generation is differentiated by technology: solar, 50-500 kW; wind, 50 kW-1.5 MW; othertechnologies may not exceed 1 MW, per State of Rhode Island, "2013-H 5803 Substitute A: An Act Relating to Public Utilities and Carriers-Distributed Generation Standard Contracts," 28 February 2013, http://webserver.rilin.state.ri.us/BillText/BillText13/HouseText13/H5803A.pdf.

59 BNEF, Energy Weekin Review, 23-29 April 2013; DSIRE USA Database.Renewable Portfolio Standard Policies. March 2013, http://www.dsireusa.org/documents/summarymaps/RPS_map.pdf.

60 BNEF, op. cit. note 59; DSIRE USA, op. cit. note 59.

61 Michael Puttre, "California's New 600 MW Renewables Law Targets Distributed Solar, Low-Income Areas," Solar Industry, 10 October 2013, http://www.solarindustrymag.com/e107_plugins/content/content.php?content.13321; Jeff Postelwait, "California Energy Bill Passes, Awaits Gov. Brown's Signature," Renewable Energy World, 12 September 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/09/california-energy-bill-passes-awaits-gov-browns-signature.

62 Solar PV and Solar Thermal Electric are listed as qualifying solar technologies for the RPS mandate, per DSIRE USA, "Minnesota: Renewables Portfolio Standard," 4 June 2013, http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?lncentive_Code=MN14R&re=0&ee=0.

63 DSIRE USA, "Colorado: Renewable Energy Standard," 25 June 2013, http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?lncentive_Code=CO24R&re=0&ee=0.

64 In addition to phasing out the Renewables Obligation, the Energy Act in the U.K.also revised financial incentives for renewables, changing support for a fixed certificate to rates based on a guaranteed strike price for renewables. GWEC, op. cit. note 12.

65 India Solar Market, "Is Solar in Tamil Nadu back?" Bridge to India, 11 February 2014, http://indiasolarmarket.com/2014/02/solar-tamil-nadu-back/.

66 Greece from Eclareon, "Monthly Progress Update: Part of the project "Assessment of climate change policies in the context of the EU Semester" (Brussels: European Commission, 5 November 2013), http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/g-gas/progress/docs/progress_201310_en.pdf; Latvia Ministry of Economics, "Householdsgreen energy production made more accessible, easierand simpler," press release (Riga: 10 October 2013), http://www.em.gov. Iv/em/2nd/?lng=lv&id=33544&cat=621; Ukraine from GTM Research, PV News, November 2013.

67 Republic of Honduras, Decreto No.138-2013, 1 August 2013, http://www.tsc.gob.hn/leyes/Ref_art_2_ley_promocion_energia_electrica_2013.pdf.

68 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Net-Metering Reference Guide (Bonn: November 2013), http://www.giz.de/fachexpertise/downloads/giz2013-en-net-metering-reference-guide-philippines.pdf.

69 Denmark from IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme, Trends in 2013 in Photovoltaic Applications (Paris: 2013); Netherlands from Ecologic, Assessment of climate change policies in the context of the European Semester (Brussels: European Commission, June 2013), http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/g-gas/progress/docs/nl_2013_en.pdf.

70 Edgar Meza, "India: Andhra Pradesh introduces net metering for rooftop plants," PV Magazine, 26 August 2013, http://www.pv-magazine.com/news/details/beitrag/india--andhra-pradesh-introduces-net-metering-for-rooftop-plants_100012497/#ixzz 2IPaJJ40; Avinash Nair, "New net-metering policy to power Gujarat's solar-rooftops," Financial Express, 25 January 2014, http://www.financialexpress.com/news/new-netmetering-policy-to-power-gujarats-solarroof tops/1220714.

71 Bridge to India, "India Solar Weekly Market Update," 30 August 2013.

72 GTM Research, op. cit. note 54.

73 New net metering provisions were adopted with the passage of AB 327. The bill also included provisions changing the state's electricity rate design system, per Jeff St. John, "AB 327: From California Solar Killer to Net Metering Savior?" GreenTech Media, 3 September 2013, http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/ab-327-from-california-solar-killer-to-net-metering-savior.

74 State of New York, Improvements Made to Renewable Energy Program, 13 June 2013, http://www3.dps.ny.gov/pscweb/WebFileRoom.nsf/Web/EC38C89DDE53F42085257B6D005A9133/$File/pr13029.pdf?OpenElement; Anne Galloway, "Vermont House passes net metering bill on voice vote; raises cap to 15%," Bennington Banner, 1 February 2014, http://www.benningtonbanner.com/localnews/ci_25039149/vermont-house-passes-net-metering-bill-voice-vote.

75 James Montgomery, "Mixed Results: Arizona Keeps Net Metering, But Levies Smaller Solar Fee," Renewable Energy World, 15 November 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/11/mixed-result-arizona-keeps-net-metering-but-levies-smaller-solar-fee?cmpid=SolarNL-Saturday-Novemberl6-2013; GTM Research, op. cit. note 66.

76 International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Renewable Energy Auctions in Developing Countries (Abu Dhabi: 2013).

77 Mario Sergio Lima, "Brazil Energy Auction Sells 2.3 Gigawatts of Wind-Power Projects," Bloomberg, 13 December 2013, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-12-13/brazil-energy-auction-sells-2-3-gigawatts-of-wind-power-projects.html; GTM Research, PV News, October 2013; Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 28 August 2013; Adam James, "Brazilian State Auction Clears 12 Megawatts of Solar PV," GreenTech Media, 2 January 2014, http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/Brazilian-State-Auction-Clears-122-Megawatts-of-Solar-PV; Stephan Nielsen, "Brazil Gives Fossi Fuels Advantage Over Wind in Power Auction," Bloomberg, 12 November 2013, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-11-12/brazil-gives-fossil-fuels-advantage-over-wind-in-power-auction.html.

78 Chilefrom Jenny Muirhead, "Weekly Intelligence Brief: October 14-21," CSP Today, 21 October 2013, http://social.csptodaycom/print/29790?utm_source=http%3A%2F%2Fuk.csptoday.com%2Ffc_csp_pvlz%2F&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=CSP%20ebrief%2021-10-13%20en&utm_term=Who%20are%20the%20leading%20CSP%20 companies%20in%202013%3F&utm_content=125566; Ecuador from Alejandro Lobo-Guerrero Rodriguez, juwi Energías Renovables de Chile Ltda., personal communication with REN21, 18 October 2013; Peru from GTM Research, op. cit. note 77; BNEF, Energy Week in Review, 23-29 April 2013; Stephan Bielsen, "Uruguay Taking Bids on First Big Solar Farms Using Wind Development Strategy," Renewable Energy World, 4 September 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/09/uruguay-taking-bids-on-first-big-solar-farms-using-wind-development-strategy?cmpid=WNL-Friday-September6-2013.

79 GTM Research, PV News, September 2013.

80 Muriel Boselli and Marion Douet, "France to launch tenderfor pilot marine projects," Reuters, 18 September 2013, http://planetark.org/wen/69801; Tara Patel, "France Double Solar Energy Target, Seeks to Promote European Equipment," Renewable Energy World, 8 January 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/01/france-doubles-solar-energy-target-seeks-to-promote-european-equipment.

81 Heather O'Brian, "Italy assigns feed in tariff to 400MW," Wind Power Monthly, 2 August 2013, http://www.windpowermonthly com/article/1193937/italy-assigns-feed-tariff-400mw; Mikael Holter, "Norway Approves $3 Billion for Wind Power Plants to Triple Capacity," Renewable Energy World, 26 August 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/08/norway-approves-3-billion-for-wind-power-plants-to-triple-capacity.

82 Marc Roca, "Russia Awards First Renewable Energy Tenderto Boost the Industry," Renewable Energy World, 26 September 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/09/russia-awards-first-renewable-energy-tender-to-boost-the-industry?cmpid=WNL-Friday-September27-2013.

83 SolarServer, "Russia to introduce bidding program for 1.2 GW of PV by 2020," Solar Plaza, 10 June 2013, http://www.solarplaza.com/news/russia-to-introduce-bidding-program-for-12-gw-of-p.

84 Alex Morales, "UK Solar, Wind to Compete Head-to-Head With Solar Under Auction Plans," Renewable Energy World, 17 January 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/01/u-k-solar-wind-to-compete-head-to-head-with-solar-under-auction-plans?cmpid=SolarNL-Friday-January17-2014.

85 Egypt from GTM Research, PV News, June 2013; South Africa from Jenny Muirhead, "Weekly Intelligence Brief: September 20-0ctober 7," CSP Today, 7 October 2013, http://social.csptoday.com/print/29768?utm_source=http%3A%2F%2Fuk.csptoday.com%2Ffc_csp_pvlz%2F&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=CSP%20Ebrief%2007-10-13%20en&utm_term=Using%20CSP%20to%20purify%20water&utm_content=125566.

86 Muirhead, op. cit. note 85.

87 GTM Research, PV News, June 2013; Lucy Woods, "India delays solar auction for second time," PV Tech, 6 January 2014, http://www.pv-tech.org/news/india_delays_solar_tender_bid_for_second_time.

88 "Asia Report: What's Driving, and Hampering, India's Wind Market Momentum," Renewable Energy World, 5 September 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/09/asia-report-whats-driving-and-hampering-indias-wind-market-momentum-1.

89 Offshore wind licences were awarded in an auction held by the Department of Interior (DOI) and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) for USD 3.8 billion. There have since been additional licencesgranted. James Montgomery, "First US Offshore Wind Leases Go to Deepwater," Renewable Energy World, 1 August 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/08/first-us-offshore-wind-leases-go-to-deepwater.

90 Debjoy Sengupta, "Government extends generation based incentive scheme forwind power," Economic Times, 5 September 2013, http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2013-09-05/news/41802395_1_wind-power-generation-based-incentive-merchant-power-plants.

91 China from Frank Haugwitz, "Ministry of Finance announced that manufacturers are subject to 50% VAT rebate," Briefing Paper-China Solar PV Development, Asia Europe Clean Energy (Solar) Advisory Co. Ltd (ACEA), September 2013, p.2, and from Hydroworld, "China announces new policy to encourage hydroelectric power development," 22 January 2014, www.hydroworld.com/content/hydro/en/articles/2014/01/china-announces-new-policy-to-encourage-hydroelectric-power-development.html; Iran from IEA/IRENA Policies and Measures Database, "Renewable Energy Development Fund," 12 November 2013, http://www.iea.org/policiesandmeasures/renewableenergy

92 Danish Ministry of Energy, "How energy-intensive companies to help you go green," 1 July 2013, http://www.ens.dk/info/nyheder/nyhedsarkiv/saadan-kan-energitunge-virksomheder-faa-hjaelp-groenne.

93 Ocean Energy Systems, op. cit. note 43.

94 BNEF, Energy: Weekin Review, 2-8July 2013.

95 Kiley Kroh, "New York Governor Announces $1 Billion for Solar Energy," Think Progress, 9 January 2014, http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2014/01/09/3139091/cuomo-big-solar/.

96 France from TECSOL, "Fin du credit d'impot pour le photovotaique, maintien pour le chauffe-eau solaire," 22 September 2013, http://tecsol.blogs.com/mon_weblog/2013/09/fin-du-cr%C3%A9dit-dimp%C3%B4t-pour-le-photovolta%C3%AFque-maintien-pour-le-chauffe-eau-solaire.html; United Statesfrom DSIRE USA Database, "Federal Electricity Production Tax Credit (PTC)," 2 October 2013, http://dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?lncentive_Code=US13F

97 Novinte, "Bulgaria MPs OK 20% Renewable Energy Tax, Defy Protests," 5 December2013, http://www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=156142; Ilias Tsagas, "Czech Republic ends FIT program, extends solartax," PV Magazine, 16 September 2013, http://www.pv-magazine.com/news/details/beitrag/czech-republic-ends-fit-program-extends-solar-tax-_100012748/#axzz2nwMg7Z3c; Sarah Azau, "Wind Energy Sector Faces Uncertainty Crisis," Wind Directions, April 2013, p.19.

98 GTM Research, PV News, March 2014; FS-UNEPand BNEF, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2014 (Frankfurt: 2014).

99 Sidebar 7 from the following sources: "disruptive" technologies that are emerging and may compete with utility-provided services include solar PV, battery storage, fuel cells, geothermal energy systems, wind power, micro-turbines, and electric vehicle-enhanced storage, per Edison Electric Institute (EEI), Disruptive Challenges: Financial Implications and Strategic Responses to a Changing Retail Electric Business (Washington, DC: January 2013), http://www.eei.org/ourissues/finance/documents/disruptivechallenges.pdf; this is particularly true in developed countries where such business models are deeply entrenched, per International Energy Agency (IEA) Lessons from Liberalised Electricity Markets (Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/IEA, 2005), http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/LessonsNet.pdf, "How to Lose Haif a Trillion Euros," The Economist, October 2013, http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21587782-europes-electricity-providers-face-existential-threat-how-lose-half-trillion-euros?frsc=dg%7Cb, and U.S. Electric Power Research Institute, The Integrated Grid: Realizing the Full Value of Central and Distributed Energy Resources (Palo Alto, CA: February 2014).http://www.eei.org/ourissues/finance/documents/disruptivechallenges.pdf; reduced load on transmission and distribution networks from Scott Sklar, Stella Group, Ltd., personal communication with REN21, 24 April 2014, and from Rocky Mountain Institute, A Review of Solar PV Benefit and Cost Studies (Boulder, CO: April 2013), http://www.rmi.org/Content/Files/eLab-DER_cost_value_Deck_130722.pdf; challenges facing utilities from "How to Lose Haif a Trillion Euros," op.cit.this note, and from EEI, op.cit.this note; European utility losses from "How to Lose Haif a Trillion Euros," op.cit.this note; Citi Research, "Rising Sun: Implications for US Utilities" (New York: August 2013); Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes, German Renewable Energies Federation (BEE), personal communication with REN21, 12 January 2014; Ross McCracken, "Energy Economist: Tough Times for European Utilities May Have a Lesson for the US," Platts, 22 November 2013, http://blogs.platts.com/2013/11/22/ee-novl3/?sf 1076174=1; Amory Lovins, "Don't Cry for the Electric Utilities," GreenBiz.com, 12 February 2014, http://www.greenbiz.com/blog/2014/02/12/dont-lament-renewables-disruption-electric-utilities?page=full; Giles Parkinson, "Australian Utilities Erect Barricades in Bid to Halt Solar Storm," Renew Economy, 23 October 2013, http://reneweconomy.com.au/2013/australian-utilities-erect-barricades-in... pushback in Europe from Hinrichs-Rahlwes, op.cit.this note; Marc Gunther, "With Rooftop Solar on Rise, U.S. Utilities Are Striking Back," Yale Environment360, 3 September 2013, http://e360.yale.edu/feature/with_rooftop_solar_on_rise_us_utilities_are_striking_back/2687/; shift in electricity models and 3 million households from EURELECTRIC, Utilities: Powerhouses of Innovation (Brussels: May 2013), p.9, http://www.eurelectric.org/media/79178/utilties_powerhouse_of_innovation_full_report_final-2013-104-0001-01-e.pdf; Germanyfrom German Chamber of Commerce and Industry, cited in Jan Hromadko, "German Companies Take Backthe Power," Wall Street Journal, 2 March 2014, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB100014240527 02304899704579390871434033460?mg=reno64-wsj&url; Germany's RWE has begun developing utility-scale PV projects, and E. ON's subsidiaries started commercial operation for rooftop PV customers in 2013; EDF (France) is investing in solar PV, and Enel Green Power (Italy) has been developing renewable power projects internationally while cooperating with technology companies on the production of amorphous silicon PV modules, all from IEA-Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (IEA-PVPS), Trends in Photovoltaic Applications 2013: Survey Report of Selected IEA Countries Between 1992 and 2012 (Paris: 2013), p.72; global survey from Katherine Tweed, "40 Percent of Utilities Predict 'Complete Transformation' by 2030," Green Tech Media, 8 October 2013, http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/40-Percent-of-Utilities-Predict-Complete-Transformation-by-2030; EnBW quote from Stephen Lacey, "This Is What the Utility Death Spiral Looks Like," The Energy Collective, 6 March 2014, http://theenergycollective.com/stephenlacey/349671/what-utility-death-spiral-looks; incresed investment in renewablesfrom "How to Lose Half a Trillion Euros," op.cit.this note, and from Gunther, op.cit.this note; share of utility investments in Europe from EURELECTRIC, op.cit.this note; Sumit Moitra, "Coal India Gets Into Solar Power," DNA India, 27 May 2013, http://www.dnaindia.com/money/report-coal-india-gets-into-solar-power-18... examples of downstream activities include trading, and providing energy advice, from "How to Lose Haifa Trillion Euros," op.cit.this note, and from Gunther, op.cit.this note; Duke Energy and Edison International have invested in Clean Power Finance, a San Francisco-based firm that has raised half a billion dollars to finance solar projects. Also, NRG Energy (New Jersey) created a rooftop solar unit to sell systems to businesses and, eventually, homeowners, per Gunther, op.cit.this note. In addition, through its Solar Loan Programme (established in 2008), PSE&G of New Jersey has provided loans to more than 1,000 residential and commercial customers to help finance solar projects on their sites. The next phase of the programme, launched in 2013, will support the financing of 97.5 MW of distributed solar built on landfills and brownfields, and also residential and commercial buildings, per Nora Caley, "Some Utilities Embrace DG Solar," Solar Industry Magazine, February 2014, http://www.solarindustrymag.com/issues/SI1402/DEPT_New%20%26%20 Noteworthy.html; shift to service-based model from "Electricity Utilities Must Evolve or Die: Are They Up To the Task?" 19 August 2013, http://theenergycollective.com/jessejenkins/261506/electricity-utilities-must-evolve-or-die, and from EURELECTRIC, op.cit.this note; RWE and EnBW from Lacey, op.cit.this note, from Diarmaid Williams, "Major European Utility Setfor Dramatic Renewable Energy Transformation," RenewableEnergyWorld.com, 31 October 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/10/major-european-utility-set-for-dramatic-transformation?cmpid=SolarNL-Saturday-November2-2013, and from "Green MakeoverWill Be Struggle for Germany's RWE," Reuters, 1 November 2013, http://planetark.org/wen/70238; hybrid model from Bianca Barth, Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft e. V, personal communication with REN21, 23 April 2014; need for policy framework from EURELECTRIC, op.cit.this note, p.49; design reforms from GTM Research, Grid Edge: Utility Modernization in the Age of Distributed Generation (Boston: 0ctober2013); U.K.pricing scheme from Australian Government, Department of Industry, Energy White Paper 2014, 7 February 2014, http://ewp.industry.gov.au/sites/ewp.industry.gov.au/files/CCCLM%20Energy%20White%20Paper%20-%20lssues%20Paper%20070214.pdf; California from Sklar, op.cit.this note; capacity markets and new market designs from Felix Matthes, et al, "Focused Capacity Markets: A New Market Design for the Transition to a New Energy System," short version of the study forthe WWF Germany Environmental Foundation, 8 October 2012, http://www.wwf.de/fileadmin/fm-wwf/Publikationen-PDF/focused_capacity_market_ENG_short.pdf, from Freyr Sverrisson, Sunna Research, personal communication with REN21, 2 April 2014, from Craig Morris, "Has the Age of Capacity Markets Only Just Begun?" Energy Transition, 29 May 2013, http://energytransition.de/2013/05/the-age-of-capacity-markets/, and from EURELECTRIC, op.cit.this note.

100 Ann Koh and Winnie Zhu, "Singapore Plans to Regulate Power Futures to Prevent Speculation," Bloomberg Businessweek, 28 October 2013, http://www.businessweek.com/news/2013-10-28/singapore-plans-to-regulate-power-futures-to-prevent-speculation; Feng Zengkun and Grace Chua, "The Straits Times: Plan to boost solar powerwithout destabilizing grid," Singapore National Climate Change Secretariat, 29 October 2013, http://app.nccs.gov.sg/(X(1)S(150a3o45ym3svln3rifuj5bi))/news_details.aspx?nid=1101&AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1.

101 "China Encourages Utility Purchase of Solar to Boos Manufacturing Capacity," Renewable Energy World, 11 December 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/12/china-encourages-utility-purchase-of-solar-to-boost-manufacturing-capacity?cmpid=SolarNL-Thursday-Decemberl2-2013.

102 GWEC, op. cit. note 12.

103 Jennifer Runyon, "Spurred by Japan, Steady Growth Predicted for Energy Storage Market," Renewable Energy World, 19 March 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/03/spurred-by-japan-steady-growth-predicted-energy-storage-market.

104 James Montgomery, "Energy Storage Roundup: Ontario and California, Imergy, Stem, Hitachi," Renewable Energy World, 5 December 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/12/energy-storage-roundup-ontario-and-california-imergy-stem-hitachi.

105 Photon, "Puerto Rico's energy regulator signs final PPAs for six large-scale PV projects," 23 January 2014, http://www.photon.info/photon_news_detail_en.photon?id=83685; 25X25, "California Finalizes Major Rule to Mandate Energy Storage, Boosting Renewables," in Weekly REsource for 18 October 2013, http://www.25x25.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1188&ltemid=246.

106 Jeff St. John, "Massachusetts Makes Smart Grid Mandatory," GreenTech Media, 31 December 2013, http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/massachusetts-makes-smart-grid-mandatory.

107 Jenny Muirhead, "Weekly Intelligence Brief: October 14-21," CSP Today, 21 October 2013, http://social.csptoday.com/print/29790.

108 GWEC, op. cit. note 12.

109 "President Obama Signs Groundbreaking Legislation to Expand U.S. Hydropower Production," GreenTech Media, 12 August 2013, http://www.greentechmedia.com/industry/read/president-obama-signs-groundbreaking-legislation-to-expand-u-301773.

110 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Small Generator Interconnection Agreements and Procedures (Washington, DC: 22 November 2013), https://www.ferc.gov/whats-new/comm-meet/2013/112113/E-1.pdf.

111 Bridge to India, "India Solar Weekly Market Update," 24 March 2014.