Wind Power

WIND POWER MARKETS

More than 35 GW of wind power capacity was added in 2013, bringing the global total above 318 GW.1 (See Figure 19 and Reference Table R10.) Following several record years, the wind power market declined nearly 10 GW compared to 2012, reflecting primarily a steep drop in the U.S. market.2 The top 10 countries accounted for 85% of year-end global capacity, but there are dynamic and emerging markets in all regions.3 By the end of 2013, at least 85 countries had seen commercial wind activity, while at least 71 had more than 10 MW of reported capacity by year's end, and 24 had more than 1 GW in operation.4 Annual growth rates of cumulative wind power capacity have averaged 21.4% since the end of 2008, and global capacity has increased eightfold over the past decade.5

Asia remained the largest market for the sixth consecutive year, accounting for almost 52% of added capacity, followed by the EU (about 32%) and North America (less than 8%).6 Non-OECD countries were responsible for the majority of installations, and, for the first time, Latin America had a substantial share (more than 4.5%).7China led the market, followed distantly by Germany, the United Kingdom, India, and Canada. Others in the top 10 were the United States, Brazil, Poland, Sweden, and Romania, and new markets continued to emerge in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.8 The leading countries for wind power capacity per inhabitant were Denmark (863 W per person), Sweden (487.6), Spain (420.5), Portugal (412), and Ireland (381).9

China added an estimated 16.1 GW of new capacity in 2013, increasing total installed capacity by 21% to 91.4 GW.10 (See Figure 20.) About 14.1 GW was integrated into the grid, with approximately 75.5 GW in commercial operation by year's end.11 Difficulties continued in transmitting power from turbines (particularly in remote northeast areas) to population demand centres, and about 16 TWh lost due to curtailment.12 However, new transmission lines and turbine deployment in areas with better grid access are reducing the number of idled turbines, and the rate of curtailment dropped from 17% in 2012 to 11% in 2013.13

Wind generated 140.1 billion kWh in China during 2013, up 40% over 2012 and exceeding nuclear generation for the second year running.14 By year's end, almost 25% of total capacity was in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, followed by Hebei (10%), Gansu (9.1%), and Liaoning (7.3%) provinces, but wind continued its spread across China—10 provinces had more than 3 GW of capacity.15

The European Union remained the top region for cumulative wind capacity, with 37% of the world's total, although Asia was nipping at its heels with more than 36%.16 Wind accounted for the largest share (32%) of new EU power capacity in 2013; more than 11 GW of wind capacity was added for a total exceeding 117 GW.17 Europe is experiencing a seaward shift, with the offshore market up 34%.18 However, the total market in the region was down 8% relative to 2012, and financing of new projects is becoming more challenging in response to policy uncertainty and declining incentives.19

Germany and the United Kingdom accounted for 46% of new EU installations, a level of concentration not seen since 2007.20

Driven largely by anticipated reforms to the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG), Germany remained Europe's largest market and set a new record for installations.21 More than 3.2 GW was added to the German grid in 2013, including more than 0.2 GW for repowering; by year's end, a total of 34.3 GW was grid-connected (and 34.7 GW total installed).22 Germany generated 53.4 TWh with the wind in 2013.23 The United Kingdom added 1.9 GW to the grid, 39% of which was offshore, for a year-end total of 10.5 GW.24

Other top EU markets were Poland (0.9 GW), Sweden (0.7 GW), Romania (0.7 GW), and Denmark (0.7 GW).25France (0.6 GW) and Italy (0.4 GW) both saw significant market reductions in 2013.26 Spain remained third in the region for cumulative capacity, but recent policy changes have brought the market to a virtual standstill, with the lowest additions (less than 0.2 GW) in 16 years.27 The highest growth rates were seen in Croatia (68%) and Finland (56.3%), from low bases, and Romania (36.5%) and Poland (35.8%).28Slovenia added capacity for the first time.29

India was the fourth largest market in 2013, although demand contracted by 26%.30 Over 1.7 GW was installed for a total approaching 20.2 GW.31 A steep devaluation of the rupee against the U.S. dollar (which increased financing and import costs), and removal of key support policies in 2012, delayed investment in wind power.32 However, retroactive reinstatement of the Generation Based Incentive in late 2013 helped resurrect the market.33 Elsewhere in the region, Japan saw a slowdown in deployment, due largely to new regulatory requirements and delays for grid access, while Thailand and Pakistan both doubled their capacity.34

Canada installed a record 1.6 GW, a market increase of more than 70%, for a total of 7.8 GW, led by Ontario (2.5 GW) and Quebec (2.4 GW).35 The United States ended the year with 61.6 GW, up byjust over 1 GW.36 This represented a significant drop from the 13.1 GW installed in 2012, when developers rushed to complete projects before the federal Production Tax Credit (PTC) expired.37 Even so, utilities and corporate purchasers signed a record number of long-term contracts in response to low power prices, and more than 12 GW of projects was under construction by year's end.38Texas led for total capacity (12.4 GW), followed by California (5.8 GW), Iowa (5.2 GW), Illinois (3.6 GW), and Oregon (3.2 GW).39

Elsewhere, the most significant growth was seen in Latin America. Brazil installed more than 0.9 GW of capacity (down from 1.1 GW in 2012) to rank seventh for newly installed wind capacity.40 It ended the year with almost 3.5 GW of commissioned capacity— nearly three-fourths of the region's total—of which 2.2 GW was grid-connected and in commercial operation.41 Utility interest in wind power is increasing because it complements Brazil's reliance on hydropower, and by year's end more than 10 GW of additional capacity was under contract.42 Others in the region to add wind capacity included Argentina, Chile, and Mexico.43

Australia was again the only country in the Pacific to add wind capacity (0.7 GW), bringing its total to more than 3.2 GW.44 In Turkey, where interest in wind power is driven partly by heavy reliance on Russian gas, 0.6 GW was installed for a total approaching 3 GW.45 Africa and the Middle East saw little new operating capacity beyond Morocco (0.2 GW) and Ethiopia, which completed Africa's largest individual wind farm (120 MW), with the aim of mitigating the impact of dry seasons on national hydropower output.46 However, other countries in the region moved ahead with new projects, and several announced long-term plans.47

Offshore wind is still small compared with global onshore capacity, but it is growing rapidly. A record 1.6 GW was added to the world's grids for a total exceeding 7 GW in 14 countries by year's end.48 More than 93% of total capacity was located off Europe, which added 1,567 MW to the grid for a total of 6,562 MW in 11 countries.49 The United Kingdom has more than 52% of the world's offshore capacity. It was the largest market (adding 733 MW) in 2013, followed in Europe by Denmark (350 MW), Germany (595 MW total, and 240 MW grid-connected), and Belgium (192 MW).50 But the EU record hides delays due to policy uncertainty, particularly in Germany and the United Kingdom, and cancellation or downsizing of projects due to cost and wildlife concerns.51 The remaining offshore capacity is in China, Japan, and South Korea; China added 39 MW for almost 430 MW total.52 Two U.S. projects qualified for the PTC before it expired and are competing to be the first commercial project operating off U.S. shores.53

Offshore and on, independent power producers and energy utilities remained the most important clients in the market in terms of capacity installed. However, there is growing interest in other sectors. The number of large corporate purchasers of wind power and turbines continued to increase during 2013.54 In addition, interest in community-owned wind power projects is growing in Australia, Canada, Japan, the United States, parts of Europe, and elsewhere.55 Community and co-operative power has long represented the mainstream ownership model in Denmark and Germany.56 Today, shared ownership is expanding through a variety of means, including innovative financing mechanisms such as crowd funding.57

The use of individual small-scalei turbines is increasing, with applications including defence, rural electrification, water pumping, battery charging, telecommunications, and other remote uses.58 Off-grid and mini-grid applications prevail in developing countries.59 Worldwide, at least 806,000 small-scale turbines were operating at the end of 2012, exceeding 678 MW (up 18% over 2011).60 While most countries have some small-scale turbines in use, capacity is predominantly in China and the United States, with an estimated 274 MW and 216 MW, respectively, by the end of 2012.61 They are followed by the United Kingdom, which added a record 38 MW in 2012, driven by a micro-generator FIT, to exceed 100 MW total.62 Other leaders include Germany, Ukraine, Canada, Italy, Poland, and Spain.63

Repowering of existing wind capacity has also expanded in recent years. The replacement of old turbines with fewer, larger, taller, and more efficient and reliable machines is driven by technology improvements and the desire to increase output while improving grid compliance and reducing noise and bird mortality.64 (See Sidebar 5.) Repowering began in Denmark and Germany, due to a combination of incentives and a large number of ageing turbines, and has spread to several other countries.65 During 2013, turbines were repowered in Denmark, Finland, and Japan, and in Germany, which replaced 373 turbines with combined capacity of 236 MW with 256 turbines totalling 726 MW.66 There is also a thriving international market in used turbines in several developing and emerging economies.67

Wind power is playing a major role in power supply in an increasing number of countries. In the EU, capacity operating at year's end was enough to cover nearly 8% of electricity consumption in a normal wind year (up from 7% in 2012), and several EU countries met higher shares of their demand with wind.68 Wind was the top power source in Spain (20.9%, up from 16.3%) during 2013, and met 33.2% of electricity demand in Denmark (up from 30%).69 Four German states had enough wind capacity at year's end to meet over 50% of their electricity needs.70 In the United States, wind power represented 4.1% of total electricity generation (up from 3.5% in 2012) and met more than 12% of demand in nine states (up from 10% in nine states in 2012), with Iowa at over 27% (up from 25%) and South Dakota at 26% (up from 24%).71 Wind power accounted for 2.6% of China's electricity generation.72 Globally, wind power capacity by the end of 2013 was enough to meet an estimated 2.9% of total electricity consumption.73

WIND POWER INDUSTRY

Over the past few years, capital costs of wind power have declined, primarily through competition, while technological advances—including taller towers, longer blades, and smaller generators in low wind speed areas—have increased capacity factors.74 These developments have lowered the costs of wind-generated electricity, improving its cost competitiveness relative to fossil fuels. Onshore wind-generated power is now cost competitive, or nearly so, on a per kWh basis with new coal- or gas-fired plants, even without compensatory support schemes, in several markets (including Australia, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, Turkey, much of the EU, and some locations in India and the United States).75 By one estimate, global levelised costs per MWh of onshore wind fell about 15% between 2009 and early 2014; offshore wind costs rose, however, due to increasing depths and distance from shore.76

Despite these largely positive trends, during 2013 the industry continued to be challenged by downward pressure on prices, increased competition amongturbine manufacturers, competition with low-cost gas in some markets, reductions in policy support driven by economic austerity, and declines in key markets.77 In Europe, market contraction led to industry consolidation, with manufacturers Bard and Fuhrländer (both Germany) filing for insolvency in late 2013, and Vestas (Denmark) cutting its staff by 30%.78 European turbine makers also experienced a decline in market share within China, where domestic suppliers constituted over 93% of the market in 2013, up from 28% just six years earlier.79 The United States experienced factory closures and ayoffs due to a shortage of new turbine orders; by year's end, however, U.S. production capacity had ramped up dramatically, with wind-related manufacturing in 44 of 50 states.80 In India, Suzlon, which has struggled for years with massive debt, ceded its top position for the first time in a decade.81

Grid-related challenges are increasing and range from lack of transmission infrastructure, to delays in grid connection, to rerouting of electricity through neighbouring countries, to curtailment where regulations and current management systems make it difficult to integrate large amounts of wind and other variable renewables.82 In addition, there is a shortage of skilled personnel in new markets that are experiencing rapid growth, particularly in Africa and Latin America, and in some more mature markets where significant policy uncertainty makes it difficult to keep trained staff in the sector.83 (See Sidebar 6 for more on renewable energyjobs.)

i - Small-scale wind systems are generally considered to include turbines that produce enough power for a single home, farm, or small business (keeping in mind that consumption levels vary considerably across countries). The International Electrotechnical Commission sets a limit at 50 kW, and the World Wind Energy Association (WWEA) and the American Wind Energy Association currently define "small-scale" as less than 100 kW, which is the range also used in the GSR; however, size varies according to needs and/or laws of a country or state/province, and there is no globally recognised definition or size limit. For more information see, for example, Stefan Gsänger and Jean Pitteloud, Small Wind World Report 2014 (Bonn: WWEA and New Energy Husum, March 2014), Executive Summary, http://small-wind.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/2014_SWWR_summary_web.pdf.

WIND POWER

Figure 19. Wind Power Total World Capacity, 2000-2013

Source: See Endnote 1 for this section.

71 countries have more than 10 MW, 24 Countries have more than 1GW INSTALLED

Figure 20. Wind Power Capacity and Additions, Top 10 Countries, 2013

Additions are net of repowering.

Source: See Endnote 10 for this section.

Figure 21. Market Shares of Top 10 Wind Turbine Manufacturers, 2013

Based on total sales of ~37.5 GW

Source: See Endnote 87 for this section.

Share of DENMARK'S ELECTRICITY COVERED BY WIND in 2013: 33.2%

SIDEBAR 5. SUSTAINABILITY SPOTLIGHT: WIND ENERGY

A decade of surging growth in the wind energy sector has changed the electricity mix in many countries and brought significant environmental benefit. Wind energy displaces fossil fuel extraction and mining activities that have potentially severe ecological impacts. Lifecycle carbon dioxide emissions from wind-generated electricity are around 40 times less per kWh than those from natural gas power and around 80 times less than those from coal, reducing the risk and impact of climate-related threats to humans and ecosystems.

Yet the rise of wind power also has raised concerns about negative environmental and social impacts. Many are typical impacts of large-scale infrastructural development and can be understood and addressed as such. Some are unique to wind turbines and are driving focussed research aimed at quantifying, understanding, and mitigating the associated risks. Others remain subjective or yet unsubstantiated by existing evidence or ongoing research.

Observed or claimed impacts pertain to visual and aesthetic obstruction, noise generation, land-use impacts, wildlife mortality, discord and dispute within communities, and consumption of raw materials. Offshore wind turbines may produce specific marine impacts, including noise and vibrational impacts on marine life, disturbance of the seabed and marine ecosystems, and impacts on navigational safety and access to shipping lanes and fisheries. Some have suggested that infrasound, electromagnetic interference, noise, shadow flicker, and blade glint from wind turbines may lead to public health effects, although these claims are currently unsupported by statistical or medical evidence.

Some of the impacts ofwind turbines are being mitigated through technological innovation. The development of turbine blades with thinner trailing edges and more aerodynamic blade tips has resulted in both higher efficiency and less noise generation. As such, the noise generation of modern wind turbines is often inaudible relative to other background noise. In the offshore sector, various techniques are being applied or developed to reduce noise impacts on marine life during construction, including the use of "bubble curtains" to diminish the sound of foundation pile driving.

Technical solutions are reducing collisions with birds and bats as well. These include radar or GPS systems that idle turbine blades when large flocks or individual birds are detected. Research is also under way on the use of ultrasonic noise to deter bats from the vicinity of wind turbines. Idling turbines during low wind conditions (when bats are more active) has been shown to significantly reduce bat fatalities. Other areas under investigation include the use of strike detection systems that shut down turbines to prevent further collisions with flocks, the use of more visible turbine shapes and colours, and the use of tower and turbine shapes that prevent nesting.i

Studies have shown that land-use impacts of turbines are small in terms of the land surface that is disturbed: typically, less than 0.4 hectares per MW are disturbed permanently, with roughly 1.4 hectares / MW disturbed during construction. Surrounding land can be used for productive purposes such as public parkland, agriculture, or highways. Concerns overthe availability of "rare earths" (used in direct-drive turbines) are being actively mitigated by the research on alternative materials, stock piling, and the development of alternative mining reserves.ii

Impacts are also being managed through better planning and regulation. Wind farms can alter the appearance of landscapes and horizons substantially; however, these effects can be mitigated or avoided through effective use of environmental impact assessments, thorough public engagement during the development process, and appropriate turbine placement. A variety of best practice guidelines for public engagement have been developed by public and private entities, including wind energy industry associations and organisations. Furthermore, many countries, including Australia, Ireland, South Africa, and the United Kingdom, now require impact assessments, mitigation, or compensation measures.

The "Sustainability Spotlight" sidebar is a regular feature of the Global Status Report, focussing on sustainability issues regarding a specific renewable energy technology or related issue.

i - Studies on bird and bat collisions indicate that the turbine-related mortality rate of wind turbines is several orders of magnitude lower than other anthropogenic influences, including hunting by domestic and feral cats, collisions and electrocutions caused by power lines, and collisions with houses, buildings, and vehicles.

ii - Rare earth impacts are addressed in "Sidebar 3. Sustainability Spotlight: Rare Earth Minerals and PV Recycling" in GSR 2011.

Source: See Endnote 64 for this section.

Most of the world's turbine manufacturers are in China, Denmark, Germany, India, Spain, the United States, and Japan, and components are supplied from many countries.84 An increasing number of manufacturers are in Brazil, with France and South Korea also emerging as producers of wind technology.85 The world'stop lOturbine manufacturers captured nearly 70% of the market in 2013 (down from 77% in 2012).86 Vestas (Denmark) regained the top spot from GE Wind (United States), which suffered from the poor U.S. market and fell to fifth. Goldwind (China) climbed four steps to second, followed by Enercon and Siemens (both Germany), which switched spots. Other top manufacturers were Gamesa (Spain), Suzlon Group (India), United Power and Mingyang (both China), and Nordex (Germany).87 (See Figure 21.)

To deal with challenges and to maintain profitability, turbine manufacturers are revamping their supply chains with techniques such as component commonality and just-in-time stocking.88 While many still make most of the critical parts, there is a trend towards outsourcing and flexible manufacturing.89 Some companies focus increasingly on project operation and maintenance, which provides steady business even when sales are down, and can increase value in an increasingly competitive market.90 Others are joining forces: Mitsubishi (Japan) and Vestas, and Areva (French nuclear supplier) and Gamesa, announced joint ventures for offshore turbine development.91 Most are now vertically integrated, with very few companies left that are purely wind turbine manufacturers.92

Local sourcing is increasing in response to local-content rules as well as the potential for cheaper finance, shorter lead times, insulation from exchange rate changes and customs duties, and reduced costs and logistical issues associated with shipping of big, heavy turbines and parts.93 To reduce transport costs, Vestas and shipper SNCF Geodis (France) in Europe, and Siemens in the United States, have begun moving blades by rail, although the practice is still in an early phase.94

Turbine designs continue to evolve to reduce costs and increase yield, with trends towards larger machines (higher hub height, longer blades, greater nameplate capacity), developments to reduce operations and maintenance costs, and shifts in technologies and strategies to improve the economics of wind power in a wider range of wind regimes and operating conditions.95 Progress in recent years has boosted energy yields, particularly in low-wind sites.96 In 2013, GE launched services packages to improve the power output of individual turbines and wind farms, and introduced a 2.5 MW turbine that incorporates energy storage capability.97 The share of gearless, or direct-drive, turbines increased again (from 12% in 2008 to 28% in 2013), and the move continued towards tailor-made turbine designs for offshore use.98

The average size of turbines delivered to market in 2013 was 1.9 MW, up from 1.8 MW in 2012.99 Average turbine sizes were 2.7 MW in Germany, 1.8 MW in the United States, 1.7 MW in China, and 1.3 MW in India.100 The largest commercially available turbine (Enercon's E-126, up to 7.6 MW), is used in the onshore sector.101 The average size installed offshore in Europe remained at about 4 MW.102 New machines in the 5-8 MW range are being tested for offshore use in Europe and Asia, while leading Chinese manufacturers are competing to develop turbines of 10 MW and larger, spurred on by government grants.103

In addition to bigger turbines, the offshore industry is seeing larger projects, and moving farther out, into deeper waters.104 To date, deep-water offshore wind has focussed on foundations adapted from the oil and gas industry, but newdesigns are under development around the world.105 In 2013, Japan floated two 2 MW machines, with plans to commercialise the technology as soon as possible, and the United Kingdom launched a leasing round for floating offshore wind.106 Japan and others aim to drive down costs and hope offshore wind will revitalise old ports and related industries.107

New, largerand more-sophisticatedvesselsare being developed to deploy turbines in deeper waters and under harsher weather conditions, with British, Chinese, German, and South Korean shipbuilders expanding into the industry.108 Larger vessels are also required to transport longer and larger subsea cables to higher-capacity, more distant offshore projects.109 These trends have pushed up prices in recent years.110 As of early 2014, the levelised cost of offshore wind power was nearly USD 240/MWh (EUR 172/MWh), but the potential for lowering costs through reductions in lifecycle financial costs is considered significant.111

The small-scale (<100 kW) wind industry also continued to mature in 2013, with hundreds of manufacturers worldwide, expanding dealer networks, and increasing importance of turbine certification.112 Most manufacturers and service providers are concentrated in China, North America, and Europe.113 About three-quarters of the world's manufacturers produce horizontal-axis machines, with others focussing on vertical or both types; most vertical-axis models have been developed over the past 5-7 years.114

See Table 2 on pages 64-65 for a summary of the main renewable energy technologies and their characteristics and costs.115

SIDEBAR 6. JOBS IN RENEWABLE ENERGY AND RELATED FIGURES

As the slow recovery in the global economy fails to invigorate labour markets, the issue of job creation has come to the forefront of the policymaking debate and strategic choices made by countries. Globally, an estimated 6.5 million peoplei worked directly or indirectly in the renewable energy sector, based on a wide range of studies primarily from the period 2012 to 2013. (See Table 1 and Figure 22.)

Recent trends in renewable energy prices and investment have affected job creation across the value chain. Employment is also shaped by regional shifts, industry realignments, growing competition, advances in technologies and manufacturing processes, and the impacts of austerity and policy uncertainty. For instance, although declining prices of solar PV and wind equipment are introducing new challenges for suppliers and affecting manufacturing jobs, they are also driving employment growth in installation and operations and maintenance.

Employment in solar PV manufacturing has experienced some turbulence as intensified competition, overcapacities, and tumbling prices have caused layoffs. But surging demand in countries such as China and Japan has eased some of the oversupply concerns, and jobs in the other segments of the value chain continue to grow, making solar PV the largest employer.

The next largest employer is the biofuels value chain, with 1.45 million jobs. The United States is the largest producer while Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol industry is the largest employer.

Wind employment was affected during 2013 by policy uncertainty, which led to a significant drop in new U.S. installations and to weak markets in Europe and India. This was offset by positive impulses in China and Canada. In offshore wind, Europe accounted for the bulk of global employment with 58,000 jobs, the U.K. being the leader.

Discrepancies exist among available sources for solar heating/ cooling, but the most recent estimates suggest some half million jobs globally. The remaining renewable energy technologies are less dynamic and employ far fewer people.

Renewable energy employment continues to advance to more and more countries, but the bulk of employment remains concentrated in just a few: China, Brazil, the United States, India, Bangladesh, and some countries in the EU.

China remains the largest employer in the sector, with 60% of employment concentrated in solar PV and a marked shift towards jobs in the installation segment of the value chain in 2013. Solar water heating jobs showed a significant reduction that year, possibly due to a change in the estimation method.

In 2012, the latest year for which data are available, the EU saw significant employment gains in the wind and bio-power sectors and large losses in solar PV. Biofuels, biogas, and geothermal showed small gains, and the heat pump and solar thermal sectors had small losses. Germany remains the dominant force in European renewable energy employment.

In the United States, employment in the solar energy sector has been rising rapidly, mostly in solar PV project development and installation. In the wind industry, manufacturing capacity has grown strongly, but the stop-and-go nature of the national support mechanism triggers periodic fluctuations in employment.

No updated numbers are available for India. A recent study suggests that employment in wind and grid-connected solar PV remains at the level of 2009. Solar PV manufacturers have struggled in the face of cheap panel imports from China.

In 2013, global employment continued to grow, with noteworthy shifts in the breakdown along the segments of the value chain. More analysis of renewable energy employment patterns is required for a thorough understanding of the underlying dynamics.

i - This global number, estimated by IRENA, should not be understood as a direct, year-on-year comparison with the IRENA estimate of 5.7 million jobs in the GSR 2013, but rather as an ongoing effort to refine the data. Global statistics remain incomplete, methodologies are not harmonised, and the different studies used are of uneven quality. These numbers are based on a wide range of studies, focused primarily on the years 2012-2013.

Source: See Endnote 83 for this section.

JOBS IN RENEWABLE ENERGY

TABLE 1. ESTIMATED DIRECT AND INDIRECT JOBS IN RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLDWIDE, BY INDUSTRY

Data source: IRENA

a - Power and heat applications, b - Traditional biomass is not included, c - Employment information for large-scale hydropower is incomplete, and therefore focuses on small hydro. Although 10 MW is often used as a threshold, definitions are inconsistent across countries, d - The total for "World" is calculated by adding the individual totals of the technologies, e - Previous estimates were substantially lower (in the 300,000-500,000 range), but installation jobs have expanded massively, f - About 331,000 jobs in sugar cane and 208,000 in ethanol processing in 2012; also includes 200,000 indirect jobs in equipment manufacturing, and 81,800 jobs in biodiesel. g - Equipment manufacturing; installation jobs not included, h - Biomass power direct jobs run only to 15,500. i - Includes 173,667 jobs for ethanol and 62,200 jobs for biodiesel in 2013. j - All solar technologies combined, with solar PV estimated at close to 100,000 jobs, k - Direct jobs only. l - Data for 2013. Includes 8,000 jobs in publicly funded R&D and administration; not broken down by technology, m - All data are from 2012, except for Germany. The "World" total and the "Rest of EU" total are calculated using the EU country data for 2012 (even if 2013 data for a specific country are available, e.g., Germany).

Note: Data are principally for 2012-2013, with dates varying by country and technology. Some of the data for India and China are older. Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Figure 22. Jobs in Renewable Energy

i - Employment information for large-scale hydropower is incomplete and not included.

TABLE 2. STATUS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES: CHARACTERISTICS AND COSTS

1 Litre of diesel of gasoline equivalent

Notes: To the extent possible, costs provided are indicative economic costs, levelised, and exclusive of subsidies or policy incentives. Several components determine the levelised costs of energy/heat (LCOE/H), including: resource quality, equipment cost and performance, balance of system/project costs (includ-ing labour), operations and maintenance costs, fuel costs (biomass), the cost of capital, and productive lifetime of the project. The costs of renewables are site specific, as many of these components can vary according to location. Costs for solar electricity vary greatly depending on the level of available solar resources. It is important to note that the rapid growth in installed capacity of some renewable technologies and their associated cost reductions mean that data can become outdated quickly; solar PV costs, in particular, have changed rapidly in recent years. Costs of off-grid hybrid power systems that employ renewables depend largely on system size, location, and associated items such as diesel backup and battery storage.

Source: See Endnote 115 for this section for sources and assumptions.

1 A total of 35,289 MW was added during the year, bringing the total to 318,105 MW, according to Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), Global Wind Report—Annual Market Update 2013 (Brussels: April 2014), p.17, http://www.gwec.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/GWEC-Global-Wind-Report_9-April-2014.pdf, and Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 10 April 2014; 35,550 MW added for an increase of 12.8%, to a total of 318,529 MW, from World Wind Energy Association (WWEA), World Wind Energy Report 2013 (Bonn: 2014); and 36,134 MW added for a total of 321,559 MW, from Navigant Research, World Market Update 2013: International Wind Energy Development. Forecast 2014-2018 (Copenhagen: March 2014), Executive Summary; 35,572 MW was installed for a total of 318,576 MW, per EurObserv'ER, Wind Energy Barometer (Paris: February 2014), p.2, http://www.energies-renouvelables.org/observ-er/stat_baro/observ/baro-jdel4-gb.pdf.Figure 19 based on historical data from GWEC, op.cit.this note, and data for 2013 from sources in this note.

2 Down 10 GW after several record years from GWEC, op. cit. note 1; drop in United States from Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 18 December2013.

3 GWEC, "Global Wind Statistics 2013" (Brussels: 5 February 2014); Sawyer, op. cit. note 2.

4 At least 85 countries from Shruti Shukla, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 13 April 2014; figures of 71 and 24 countries from Shruti Shukla, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 26 March 2014. Note that there was wind-related activity in at least 46 countries during 2013 and, as of end-2013, 75 countries had 10 MW or more capacity, and 24 had more than 1 GW in operation, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. During 2013, 19,028 new turbines were erected in 54 countries, from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1.

5 Based on 120,624 MW at end of 2008, and 39,431 MW at end of 2003, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.21.

6 Sixth consecutive yearand shares based on data for China, the European Union, the United States, Canada, and the world, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, pp.17, 18. Note that Europe accounted for 32% of all new installations in 2013, up from 28.5% in 2012 and 24.5% in 2011, from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1; and the EU accounted for 32.3% of 2013 installations from WWEA, op. cit. note 1.

7 Latin America (including Mexico) accounted for 1,615 MW in 2013, or nearly 4.6% of capacity additions based on data from GWEC, op. cit. note 1; Latin America accounted for 5.1% of the global market, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1.

8 GWEC, op. cit. note 1.

9 WWEA, op. cit. note 1. The top five are followed by Germany (372.1 W/capita), Canada (209.7), Estonia (191.2), Austria (182.2), and the United States (167.7).

10 Based on the following: 16,088 MW added for a total of 91,412 MW installed by the end of 2013, from Chinese Wind Energy Association (CWEA), provided by Shi Pengfei, CWEA, personal communication with REN21, 14 March 2014; 16,000 MW added for a total of 91,324 MW, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1; and 16,088 MW added for a total of 91,412 MW, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.17. For more on China-related developments, see also "Statistics of Wind Power Development in China 2013," WWEA Quarterly Bulletin, March 2014, pp.22-33, http://www.wwindea.org/webimages/WWEA_Bulletin-ISSUE_1_2014_reduced.pdf.Figure 20 based on country-specific data and sources provided throughout this section.

11 Figure of 14.1 GW added to the grid for a year-end total of 75,480 MW from China Electricity Council (CEO, provided by Shi Pengfei, CWEA, personal communication with REN21, 15 April 2014. Note that 77,160 M W was available for grid connection, from China Renewable Energy Engineering Institute (CREED, provided by Shi, op. cit. note 10. Most of the capacity added in 2013 was feeding the grid by year's end, per Sawyer, op. cit. note 1. Note that the process of finalising the test phase and getting a commercial contract with the system operator takes time, as does getting paid, all of which account fordelays in reporting. The difference in statistics among Chinese organisations and agencies is explained by the fact that they count different things—there are three prevailing statistics in China: installed capacity (turbines installed according to commercial contracts); construction capacity (constructed and connected to grid for testing); and operational capacity (connected, tested, and receiving tariff forelectricity produced). The lowest number (operational) only registers once the feed-in tariff has been paid, which can take weeks or even months.

12 An estimated 16.2 TWh was curtailed in 2013, from Shi, op. cit. note 10.

13 China National Energy Administration, provided by Liu Minghui, CWEA, personal communication with REN21, February 2014; "China Wind Farm Idling Improves with Better Planning," Bloomberg, 9 September 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/09/china-wind-farm-idling-improves-with-better-planning. Note that a ±800 kV DC transmission line over 2,200 kilometres, from Hami in Xinjiang province to Zhengzhou in Henan, came into operation in January 2014, with 8 GW capacity for wind and coal power. In addition, several ultra-high transmission lines are planned to carry electricity from Inner Mongolia and Gansu to eastern China. In 2012, 20.8 TWh of wind power could be generated but were lost due to dispatching requirements, and unable to be consumed; this number declined to 16.2 TWh in 2013, all from Shi, op. cit. note 10.

14 Figure of 140.1 TWh and exceeding nuclear from CEC, provided by Shi Pengfei, CWEA, personal communication with REN21, 12 March 2014; and up 40% based on 100.4 TWh generated in 2012, from CEC, provided by Shi, op. cit. note 10.

15 CREEI, provided by Shi, op. cit. note 10.

16 Based on data from European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), Wind in Power: 2013 European Statistics (Brussels: February 2014), p.3, http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/files/library/publications/statistics/EWEA_Annual_Statistics_2013.pdf; from GWEC, op. cit. note 3; and from WWEA, op. cit. note 1.

17 EWEA, op. cit. note 16. The EU added 11,264 MW to the grid in 2013 for a total of 117,289 MW.

18 Ibid., p.5.

19 Market decline from ibid., p.6; financing is becoming more challenging particularlyforoffshore projects, according to Shruti Shukla, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 19 March 2014; policy uncertainty also from Sarah Azau, "Wind Energy Sector Faces Uncertainty Crisis," Wind Directions, April 2013, p.19. Note that 2013 additions in Europe reflect orders that were made before political uncertainty began to sweep across Europe in 2011, per GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.22.

20 EWEA, op. cit. note 16, p.3.

21 Germany's strong year was driven largely by developers' efforts to install projects and acquire the best wind power purchasing terms possible before pending reform of the EEG in 2014, from EurObserv'ER, op. cit. note 1, p.5; and from C. Ender, "Wind Energy Use in Germany—Status 31.12.2013," DEWI Magazin, February 2014, http://www.dewi.de/dewi/fileadmin/pdf/publications/Magazin_44/07.pdf; the previous German record was set in 2002, per EurObserv'ER, op. cit. note 1, pp.3, 5.

22 Germany added 3,591.71 MW of capacity in 2013, but only 3,237 MW of that was grid-connected by year'send (notall new offshore capacity was connected), and 236 MW was removed for repowering, from Ender, op. cit. note 21. From other sources: In 2013, Germany added 3,238 MW (of which 240 MW was grid-connected offshore) for a total of 33,730 MW, per EWEA, op. cit. note 16, pp.4-5; 3,238 MW was added for a total of 34,250 MW grid-connected, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.48; 3,237 MW was added, from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1; 3,345 MWwas added for a total of 34,660 MW (including installed capacity that was not grid-connected), from WWEA, op. cit. note 1; Germany's gross additions were 3,592 MW, with net additions of 3,356 MW (accounting for repowering), including 2,761 MW onshore, for a year-end total of 34,660 MW (including about 355 MW of offshore capacity that was not grid-connected by year's end), per Arbeitsgruppe Erneuerbare Energien-Statistik(AGEE-Stat), Erneuerbare Energien im Jahr 2013 (Berlin: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi), Berlin, 2014), http://www.bmwi.de/BMWi/Redaktion/PDF/A/agee-stat-bericht-ee-2013.

23 AGEE-Stat, op. cit. note 22.

24 The United Kingdom installed 1,883 MW for a year-end total of 10,531 MW, per EWEA, op. cit. note 16, pp.4-5; the same numbers are used by GWEC and Navigant Research. The U.K.added 2,088 MW for a total of 10,976 MW, from U.K. Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), Section 6 – Renewables, in Energy Trends (London: March 2014), https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/295362/ET_March_2014. PDF.

25 Poland added 894 MW for a total of 3,390 MW; Sweden added 724 M W for a total of 4,470 M W; Romania added 695 MW for a total of 2,600 MW; Denmark added 657 MW for a total of 4,772 MW, from EWEA, op. cit. note 16, pp.3-5. Note that Denmark added net 626 M W for total of 4,792 M W at year's end, per Carsten Vittrup, "2013 Was a Record-Setting Yearfor Danish Wind Power," Energinet. DK, 15 January 2014, http://www.energinet.dk/EN/EI/Nyheder/Sider/2013-var-et-rekordaar-for-dansk-vindkraft.aspx. At the end of 2013, wind power accounted for 7% of Sweden's electricity consumption, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.23.

26 France added 631 MW for a total of 8,254 MW, and Italy added 444 MW for a total of 8,551 MW, from EWEA, op. cit. note 16, pp.3-5. Note that France added 535 MW of wind capacity in 2013, down from 815 MW in 2012, for a total of 8,163 MW, per Commissariat Général au Développement Durable, Ministère de l'Écologie du Développement durable et de l'Énergie, "Observation etStatistiques," Chiffres & Statistiques, no.498, February 2014, http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/CS498.pdf.

27 Spain added 175 MW for a total of 22,959 MW f rom EWEA, op. cit. note 16, p.4; 173 M W net additions for total of 22,746 MW from Red Electrica de Espana, "Potencia Instalada Peninsular (MW)," http://www.ree.es, updated March 2014; policy changes from Chris Rose, "A Closer Look at Spain," Wind Directions, November 2013, p.30; lowest in 16 years from EurObserv'ER, op. cit. note 1, p.9.

28 EWEA, op. cit. note 16, p.4.

29 Ibid., p.4. Iceland also added capacity (1.8 MW) for the first time in 2013, from idem. In addition, Bolivia added wind capacity (3 MW) for the first time in 2013, from Shukla, op. cit. note 4, 26 March 2014; and Mongolia added its first commercial wind capacity (50 MW) for a total of 50 MWf rom GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.17. Note, however, that Bolivia and Iceland added capacity prior to, but not during, 2013; and Mongolia added 46.9 MW in 2013 for a total of 50.9 MW, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1.

30 Market contraction based on 1,729 MW added in 2013 and 2,336 MW installed in 2012, with 2012 data from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.9.

31 Figure of 1,729 MW added in 2013 for a year-end total of 20,150 MW, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.17; and from EurObserv'ER, op. cit. note 1, p.2; added 1,987 MW per Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1; added 1,829 MW for a total of 20,150 MW, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1.

32 "Asia Report: What's Driving, And Hampering, India's Wind Market Momentum," Renewable Energy World, 5 September 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/09/asia-report-whats-driving-and-hampering-indias-wind-market-momentum-1; Natalie Obiko Pearson, "India's Currency Plunge Derailing its $1.6 Billion Wind Industry," Bloomberg, 3 September 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/09/rupee-derailing-1-6-billion-india-wind-farm-revival; GWEC, op. cit. note 1, pp.28, 58; Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1.

33 The GBI was reinstated in August 2013, retroactively from April 2012, from Shukla, op. cit. note 4, 26 March 2014. Accelerated depreciation (of 80%), a key support policy for privately-owned projects, was not yet reinstated as of year's end, from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1.

34 Japan added 50 MW in 2013 for a total of 2,661 MW, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.17, and from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. Japan's guidelines for wind power projects are stricter than those for new skyscrapers, per Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 15 January 2014; environmental assessments for construction of large-scale wind farms in Japan take about three years, from Kazuaki Nagata, "Wind Poweron Verge of Taking Off," Japan Times, 26 February 2014, http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/02/26/business/wind-power-on-verge-of-taking-off/#. Uw-8m_l5Np8; Thailand added 111 MW for a total of 223 MW, and Pakistan added 50 MW for a total of 106 MW, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.17. Note that Thailand added 81 MWfora total of 193 MW, and Pakistan added no capacityfora total of 106 MW, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. Vietnam's first commercial project came on line in 2012, and the second in 2013, from "Bac Lieu Wind-Power Project Comes on Line," Vietnamnet.vn, 31 May 2013, http://english.vietnamnet.vn/fms/environment/75604/bac-lieu-wind-power-project-comes-on-line.html; total of 52 MW from Sawyer, op. cit. note 1. Note that Vietnam added 0 MW in 2013 for a total of 31 MW, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1.

35 Canada added 1,599 MW for a total of 7,803 MW, of which 2,470 MW was in Ontario and 2,398.3 MW in Quebec, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, pp.17, 22. Canada added nearly 1,600 MWfora total of 7,802.72 MW from Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA), "Installed Capacity," http://canwea.ca/wind-energy/installed-capacity/, viewed 11 April 2014; 1,699 MW was added per Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1; and 1,497 MW was added for a total of 7,698 M W, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. Market increase of more than 70% based on 2013 additions and added capacity of 935 MW in 2012, from GWEC, Global Wind Report: Annual Market Update 2012 (Brussels: 2013), p.9.

36 The United States added 1,087 MW in 2013 for a total of 61,110 MW, from American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), "U.S. Capacity & Generation," in U.S. Wind Industry Annual Market Report 2013 (Washington, DC: 10 April 2014), http://www.awea.org/AnnualMarketReport.aspx?ltemNumber=6305&RDtoken=35392&userID=.

37 Figure of 13,131 MWwas added during 2012, from AWEA, AWEA U.S. Wind Industry Annual Market Report, Year Ending 2012 (Washington, DC: 2013), Executive Summary, http://www.awea.org/annualmarketreport2012.

38 James Montgomery, "Updated: Massachusetts Utilities Sign PPA for Wind Energy That Is Cheaper Than Coal," Renewable Energy World, 24 September 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/09/massachusetts-utilities-pool-for-cheaper-wind-energy-supply; utilities included American Electric Power's Public Service Company of Oklahoma, Xcel Energy, Detroit Edison, Austin Energy, Omaha Public Power District, from AWEA, "Wind Power's Growth Continues to Attract nvestment, Benefit Consumers and Local Economies," press release (Washington, DC: 31 October 2013), http://www.awea.org/MediaCenter/pressrelease.aspx?ltemNumber=5775; corporate purchasers included Google and Microsoft, which signed long-term PPAs to power data centres in Texas, from AWEA, AWEA U.S. Wind Industry Fourth Quarter 2013 Market Report (Washington, DC: 30 January 2014), Executive Summary, p.4, http://www.awea.org/4Q2013; in response to low power prices from Christopher Martin, "US Wind Power Slumps in 2013 After Tax Credit Drives 2012 Boom," Bloomberg, 1 November 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/11/u-s-wind-power-slumps-in-2013-after-tax-credit-drives-2012-boom; more than 12 GW from AWEA, "Largest-ever Crop of Wind Farms Under Construction, Building U.S. Industry's Momentum," press release (Washington, DC: 30 January 2014), http://www.awea.org/MediaCenter/pressrelease.aspx?ltemNumber=6044. Note that the U.S.market was still busy after expiration of the PTC because a change in the law, made in early 2013, provides support to all projects that were started before 31 December 2013.

39 Texas had 12,355 MW at year's end, California 5,830 MW, Iowa 5,178 MW, Illinois 3,568 MW, and Oregon 3,153 MW, per AWEA, AWEA U.S. Wind Industry Fourth Quarter 2013 Market Report, op. cit.note 38, p.6, http://www.awea.org/4Q2013.

40 In 2013, Brazil added 948.2 MW of capacity, which was considered by ABEEolica to be grid-connected; a further 304.2 MWwas installed and not yet grid-connected at year's end, for a total of 3.46 GW, from Francine Martins Pisni, Associação Brasileira de Energia Eólica (ABEEólica), communication with REN21 via Suani Coelho, CENBIO, 29 April 2014. For comparison, in 2012, Brazil added an estimated 1,077 MW for a total of 2,508 M W, from GWEC, Global Wind Report – Annual Market Update 2012 (Brussels: April 2013), and from ABEEólica, "Boletim Mensal de Dados do Setor Eólico – Publico," January 2013, p.2, http://www.abeeolica.org.br. Ranked seventh based on data from GWEC, op. cit. note 1. Note that ABEEólica deems capacity to be installed and grid-connected once it has achieved the status "Able to Operate," meaning that the wind farm operator receives monthly payment for power sales, according to the accounting system of the Chamber of Electric Energy Commercialisation (CCEE), which considers the energy to be delivered under the contract at the contracted price. This status was created due to delays in completion of some transmission lines.

41 Figure of 3.5 GW based on 3.46 GW installed and with status "Able to Operate" (see previous endnote), from Pisni, op. cit. note 40; Brazil had about 2.2 GW in commercial operation by the end of 2013, from National Electricity Agency of Brazil (ANEEL), cited in "Capacidade instalada para energia eolica cresce 20% no Brasil," Jornal da Energia, 1 April 2014, http://www.portalabeeolica.org.br/index.php/noticias/1739-capacidade-instalada-para-energia-eolica-cresce-20-no-brasil.html (using Google Translate). Brazil added 953 MW in 2013, all of which wasfully commissioned but not all grid-connected, for a total of 3,461 M W, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.24; added 892 MW for a total of 3,399 M W, f rom WWEA, op. cit. note 1.

42 Specifically, utilities such as CPFL Energia and Tractebel Energia are seeking to increase theirfocuson wind power, per Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF), "Marubeni Is the Main Attraction in Stream of August Renewable Energy Deals," Energy: Week in Review, 6-12 August 2013; 4.7 GW of new capacity was contracted in 2013 alone, in three auctions, and a total of 10 GW was under contract by the end of the year, from Sawyer, op. cit. note 1.

43 Argentina added 76 MWfora total of 218 MW; Chileadded 130 MW for a total of 335 MW; Mexico added 380 MW for a total of 1,917 MW, all from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.17. Data from WWEA were similar, with Argentina adding 76.2 MW for a total of 217.1 MW, Chile adding 145 MW for a total of 335 MW, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. The exception is Mexico, with 644 MW added for a total of 1,992 MW, from idem. Others in the region that also added capacity were Ecuador (16.5 MW), Nicaragua (39.6 MW), and Uruguay adding 3.6 MW for a total of 59.3 MW, from idem.

44 Australia added 655 MW for a total of 3,239 MW, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.17. It added 465 MW for a total of 3,049 MW, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1.

45 Reliance on Russian gas from Sarah Azau and Zoe Casey, "Europe's Emerging Markets Take Flight," Wind Directions, February 2013, p.37; Turkey added 646 MW for a total of 2,959 MW, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.17, and from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. An additional 11 GW of capacity was planned or underconstruction in Turkey by year'send, from Sarah Azau, "The Powerhouse Bridging Eastand West," Wind Directions, September 2013, p.30.

46 Morocco added a total of 200 MW in three wind projects, from Philippe Lempp, Deutsche Gesellschaftfur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, personal communication with REN21, 24 April 2014; 204 MW added from WWEA, op. cit. note 1; 120 MW and mitigating impacts in Ethiopia from Aaron Maasho, "Ethiopia Opens Africa's Largest Wind Farm to Boost Power Production," Reuters, 28 October 2013, http://planetark.org/wen/70186. The Ashegoda Wind Farm was scheduled for completion in 2011, but delayed due to logistical constraints, and it is the country's second commercial wind project, from idem. Ethiopia added 90 MW during 2013 for year-end total of 171 MW, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.17; and 120 MW were added for a total of 171 MW, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1.

47 Forexample, South Africa expects 700-1,000 MW to come on line in 2014; at the end of 2013, Jordan signed a PPA with Jordan Wind Power Company for a 117 MW wind farm, per Samer Zawaydeh, Association of Energy Engineers, Jordan Energy Chapter, personal communication with REN21, 12 April 2014. Long-term plans from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.24.

48 Figures of 14 countries, 1,625.9 MW added for a total of 7,040.9 MW, from Shukla, op. cit. note4, 26 March 2014. In 14 countries also from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. In 2013, 13 new projects were installed with 1,720 MW of capacity, from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1; 1,902.1 MW was added offshore eight countries for a global total of 7,357.8 MW, with 6,935.9 MW of this capacity in Europe, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. Offshore capacities by country were: the United Kingdom added 733 MW added for a total of 3,680.9 MW; Denmark added 349.5 MW for 1,270.6 MW; China added 39 MW for428.6 MW; Belgium added 192 MW for 571.5 MW; Germany added 240 MW to the grid for520.3 MW of grid-connected capacity; Netherlands added 0 MW for 246.8 MW; Sweden added 48 MW for 211.7 MW; Finland added OMW for 26.3 MW; Ireland added 0 MWfor 25.2 MW; Japan added 24.4 MW for49.7 MW; South Korea added 0 M W for 5.0 MW; Spain added 5 MW for 5 MW; Norway added 0 MW for 2.3 MW; Portugal added 0 MW for 2.0 MW; and United States added 0 MW for 0.02 MW (pilot), all from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.55. Datafrom WWEA were similarwith the following exceptions: United Kingdom added 705.1 MW for total of 3,653 MW; Germany added 595 MW for 914.9 MW (including capacity that was not grid-connected at year's end); Finland added 0 MW for 30 MW; China added 0 MW for 389.6 MW; Japan added 2 M W for 27.3 MW; South Korea added 5 MWfor 5 MW, all from WWEA, op. cit. note 1.

49 Europe added 1,567 MW offshore capacity to the grid for a total of 6,562 MW in 11 countries, from EWEA, The European Offshore Wind Industry- Key Trends and Statistics 2013 (Brussels: January 2014), p.5, and from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.55. Of the 1,567 MW added, 72% were in the North Sea, 22% in the Baltic Sea, and 6% in the Atlantic Ocean, from EWEA, op.cit.this note. Europe added 1,772.9 MW offshore for a total of 6,949.2 MW, from EurObserv'ER, op. cit. note 1, p.4. The difference in year-end data is explained by how sources count newly installed capacity that was not grid-connected at year's end.

50 EWEA, op. cit. note 49, p.5, and from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.55. Note that Denmark's largest offshore wind farm, the 400 MW Anholtwind farm was completed by Dong Energy, from "Denmark: All Turbines at Anholt Offshore Wind Farm Now Operational," Wind Directions, September 2013, p.19. Germany had 394.6 MW of offshore capacity awaiting grid connection at year's end (not included in the 240 MW figure), from B. Neddermann, "German Offshore Market Growing Despite Problems with Grid Connection," DEWI Magazin, February 2014, p.55, http://www.dewi.de/dewi/fileadmin/pdf/publications/Magazin_44/09.pdf.

51 Slowdown due to policy uncertainty from EWEA, op. cit. note 49, p.19; and from Sarah Azau, "Record Offshore Wind Figures Conceal Slow-down in New Projects," Renewable Energy World, 29 January 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/blog/post/2014/01/record-offshore-figures-conceal-slow-down-in-new-projects; Justin Wilkes, EWEA, cited in Tildy Bayar, "Europe Doubles Its Offshore Wind Capacity, but Policy Uncertainty Still a Challenge," Renewable Energy World, 16 July 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/07/europe-doubles-its-offshore-wind-capacity-but-policy-uncertainty-still-a-challenge. Several projects were cancelled due to concerns about challenging offshore conditions and/or projects were deemed to be uneconomic with existing technology, from Karolin Schaps, "Scottish Power Becomes Third Firm to Scrap UK Offshore Wind Farm," Reuters, 16 December 2013, http://planetark.org/wen/70684; Kelvin Ross, "RWE Scraps Atlantic Array Offshore Wind Farm in UK," Power Engineering International, 26 November 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/11/rwe-scraps-atlantic-array-offshore-wind-farm-in-uk; "RWE Cuts UK Offshore Wind Farm Capacity by Up to Half," Reuters, 6 January 2014, http://uk.reuters.com/article/2014/01/06/uk-britain-rwe-tritonknoll-idUKBREA050EC20140106; Alex Morales, "Birds, Bombs, Sharks Slow Offshore Wind from UK to Germany," Bloomberg, 20 February 2014, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/02/birds-bombs-sharks-slow-offshore-wind-from-uk-to-germany.

52 China added 39 M W for a year-end total of 428.6 M W, of which 300.5 MW is inter-tidal, from CWEA, provided by Shi Pengfei, CWEA, personal communication with REN21, 24 March 2014. No capacity was added in 2013, and China ended the yearwith 389.6 MW of offshore wind, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. Japan added 24 MW for a total of 49.7 MW, and South Korea added no capacity and ended the yearwith 5 MW, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, pp.55, 56. Japan added a 16 MW near-shore project and South Korea added no new capacity, from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1; Japan added 2 MW for a total of 27.3 MW, and South Korea added 5 MW for a total of 5 MW, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1; and Japan added 8 MW for a total of 34 MW, from Hironao Matsubara, nstituteforSustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), Tokyo, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2014. Note that several Chinese projects have been delayed overthe use of sea areas, from Mao Pengfei, "Analysis: China Approves First Commercial Offshore Projects," Wind Power Offshore, 4 December 2013, http://www.windpoweroffshore.com/article/1223773/analysis-china-approves-first-commercial-offshore-projects; but almost 5 GW of Chinese projects were approved in 2013, from Sawyer, op. cit. note 2; and more than 1,000 MW of offshore capacity was under construction in China by early 2014, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.56.

53 Cape Wind (Massachusetts) and Deepwater Block Island (Rhode Island) both qualified, from James Montgomery, "Wind Energy 2014 Outlook: Major Markets Recover, Battling Policy and Grid Concerns," Renewable Energy World, January-February 2014, p.35; competing to be first in operation, by 2015, from James Montgomery, "First US Offshore Leases Go to Deepwater," Renewable Energy World, 1 August 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/08/first-us-offshore-wind-leases-go-to-deepwater. In addition, there is a 20 kW machine in U.S.waters, from Shukla, op. cit. note 4, 26 March 2014.

54 See, forexample, Honda, "Honda Begins Construction of the First Wind Farm by an Automaker in Brazil," press release (Sao Paulo: 29 October 2013), http://world.honda.com/news/2013/c131029First-Wind-Farm-Brazil/index.html; Louise Downing, "Ikea to Buy Wind Farm in Ireland from Mainstream Renewable," Bloomberg, 12 August 2013, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-08-12/ikea-to-buy-wind-farm-in-ireland-from-mainstream-renewable.html; Jeff Anthony, "Utilities' Appetite for Wind Energy Continues to Grow," Renew-grid.com, 10 June 2013, http://www.renew-grid.com/el07_plugins/content/content.php?content.9985.

55 For Australia, see, forexample, "Australia's First Community-Owned Wind Farm in Daylesford," Castlemaine Independent, 18 October 2013, http://www.castlemaineindependent.org/2013/10/australias-community-owned-wind-farm-daylesford/; and The Greens, "Unleashing Community-Owned Energy," http://greens.org.au/community-energy, viewed 3 March 2014; in Canada, for example, the country'sfirst union-owned and -operated wind turbine came on line, in Ontario (Port Elgin), per Ken Lewenza, President of Canadian Auto Workers (CAW), cited in "CAW Owned and Operated Wind Turbine Begins Operation in Port Elgin, Ontario," 25 March 2013, http://www.caw.ca/en/12003.htm; Japan from Tetsu lida, ISEP, Tokyo, personal communication with REN21, 14 January 2014; United States from A. C. Orrell et al., 2012 Market Report on Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications (Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory, August 2013), p.59; and from Windustry, "Community Wind," http://www.windustry.org/community-wind, viewed 3 March 2014. A community project came on line in South Dakota with 600 investors, but it is increasingly difficult to make investment open for "normal investors" in the United States now that the federal cash grant programme has expired, per Brian Minish in interview with John Farrell, "600 Investors in South Dakota's Premier Community Wind Project," (podcast) Renewable Energy World, 13 August 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/blog/post/2013/08/600-investors-in-south-dakotas-premier-community-wind-project; Europefrom, forexample, Energy4All Limited, "Delivering Community-Owned Green Power," http://www.energy4all.co.uk/, viewed 3 March 2014, from Richard Cowell, "Community Wind in Europe – Strength in Diversity?" WWEA Quarterly Bulletin, December 2012, pp.10-15, and from Tildy Bayar, "Community Wind Arrives Stateside," Renewable Energy World, 5 July 2012, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2012/07/community-wind-arrives-stateside. See also "Community Wind Energy," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_wind_energy, viewed 3 March 2014.

56 Stefan Gsanger, WWEA, Bonn, personal communication with REN21, 1 April 2013.

57 Forexample, overa 13-hour period, 1,700 Dutch households bought shares in a wind turbine, to be located in Culemborg, raising USD 1.8 million (EUR 1.3 million) through crowd funding, from Tildy Bayar, "Dutch Wind Turbine Purchase Sets World Crowdfunding Record," Renewable Energy World, 24 September 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/09/dutch-wind-turbine-purchase-sets-world-crowdfunding-record.

58 Pike Research, "Small Wind Power," www.pikeresearch.com/research/small-wind-power, viewed March 2013; WWEA, Small World Wind Power Report 2013 {Bonn-. March 2013), Summary, http://www.wwindea.org/webimages/SWWR_summary.pdf; RenewableUK, Small and Medium Wind UK Market Report (London: 0ctober2013), http://www.renewableuk.com/en/publications/index.cfm/Small-and-Medium-Wind-UK-Market-Report-2013.

59 Off-grid from WWEA, op. cit. note 58.

60 Stefan Gsangerand Jean Pitteloud, Small Wind World Report 2014 Update (Bonn: WWEA, March 2014), Summary, http://small-wind.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/2014_SWWR_summary_web.pdf. Note that these numbers are based on available data, and the total excludes data for Italy and India, both of which are important markets. WWEA estimates that the actual total is closer to 1 million units worldwide.

61 All information except U.S.capacity data is from Gsanger and Pitteloud, op. cit. note 60; the United States added about 18.4 MW in 2012 (nearly 3,700 turbines) for an estimated 216 MW cumulative installed since 1980, with 131 MW added during 2003-2012, mostly by homeowners, farmers, and other individuals, per Orrell et al., op. cit. note 55, pp.11, 18, 62.

62 RenewableUK, op. cit. note 58. Note that a tariff degression in late 2012 led to a rush of installations at year's end. The U.K.installed 37 MW during 2012 and ended the yearwith 87.3 MW, per Gsänger and Pitteloud, op. cit. note 60. Several other countries also have small-scale wind specific tariff pricing under FITs, including Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Israel, Japan, Lithuania, Portugal, Slovenia, and Switzerland, as well as Ontario and Nova Scotia in Canada, and the U.S.states of Indiana, Hawaii and Vermont, per idem.

63 Gsänger and Pitteloud, op. cit. note 60.

64 International Energy Agency (IEA), Technology Roadmap – Wind Energy, 2013 Edition (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2013), p.10; James Lawson, "Repowering Gives New Life to Old Wind Sites," Renewable Energy World, 17 June 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/06/repowering-gives-new-life-to-old-wind-sites; B. Neddermann, "Status of Repowering in 2013," DEWI Magazin, February 2014, p.47, http://www.dewi.de/dewi/fileadmin/pdf/publications/Magazin_44/08.pdf.Sidebar 5 from the following sources: ifecycle carbon dioxide emissions from Union of Concerned Scientists, "Environmental Impacts of Wind Power," 3 May 2013, www.ucsusa.org; offshore marine impacts from U.K. Maritime and Coastguard Agency, "Offshore Renewable Energy Installations: Impact on Shipping," http://www.gov.uk, and from M. L. Johnson and D. P Rodmell, "Fisheries, the Environment and Offshore Wind Farms: Location, Location, Location," Food Ethics, vol.4, no.1 (2009), pp.23-24; public health effects from Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), "NHMRC Public Statement: Wind Turbines & Health," July 2010, http://www.nhmrc.gov.au; claims unsupported from Emma Fitzpatrick, "Acoustics Group Says Wind Turbine Infrasound Less than a Heart-beat," 16 September 2013, http://reneweconomy.com.au, and from NHMRC, op.cit.this note; innovation in turbine blades and reduced noise generation from Z. Casey, "Wind Farms: A Noisy Neighbour?" Wind Directions (EWIA), February 2013, and from T. Evans, "MacarthurWind Farm, Infrasound & Low Frequency Noise, Operational Monitoring Results," 18 July 2013, http://www.agl.com.au; offshore noise reduction from German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BFN), Development of Noise Mitigation Measures in Offshore Wind Farm Construction 2013 (Bonn: February 2013), and from German Federal Ministry forthe Environment, Nature Conservation and NuclearSafety (BMU), Innovation Through Research: 2012 Annual Report on Research Funding in the Renewable Energies Sector (Bonn: July 2013); radar or GPS systems from M. Chediak, "Texas Gulf Coast Beckons Wind Farms," Bloomberg, 11 October 2013, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-10-10/gulf-coast-beckons-wind-farms-when-west-texas-gusts-fade.html, and from R. Drouin, "8 Ways Wind Power Companies Are Trying to Stop Killing Birdsand Bats,"6 January 2014, http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/01/birds-bats-wind-turbines-deadly-collisions; ultrasonic noise from idem; idling and bat fatalities from American Wind Wildlife Institute, "Wind Turbine Interactions with Wildlife and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions," fact sheet (Washington, DC: January 2014); other areas under investigation from Drouin, op.cit.this note; land use impacts from P. Denholm et al., Land-use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the United States (Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2009); rare earths from REN21, Renewables 2011 Global Status Report (Paris: 2011); best practice guidelines from, for example, Canadian Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy Development Best Practices for Community Engagement and Public Consultation (Ottawa: undated), and from WindProtocol, The Protocol for Public Engagement with Proposed Wind Energy Developments in England (London: Department of Trade and Industry, May 2007); impact assessments, mitigation, or compensation measures from the following: Martha Ekkert, BMU, personal communication with REN21, 27 January 2014; Victoria Department of Transport, Planning and Local Infrestructure, "Wind Energy Facilities," 18 October 2013, http://www.dpcd.vic.gov.au; Irish Wind Energy Association, "Planning Regulations and Administration," 2 September 2008, http://www.iwea.com; A. Campbell, Standard Bank, "Funding Projects in REIPP – lessons learned from BD1," presentation at PV Project Development Summit South Africa, September 2012; U.K. Department of Energy & Climate Change, "Offshore Wind: Part of the UK's Energy Mix," 1 August 2013, https://www.gov.uk/offshore-wind-part-of-the-uks-energy-mix.

65 Other countries include India, Italy, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States, from IEA, op. cit. note 64, p.10; and from Lawson, op. cit. note 64.

66 Denmark replaced 39 units (47 MW), Finland (2 units/2.3 MW), Japan (4 units/2.1 MW), from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1; Germany replaced 339 turbines (226 MW) with 256 turbines (726 MW), plus removed 34 turbines (10 MW) from single sites, which also qualified for the "repowering bonus", from Neddermann, op. cit. note 64, p.47

67 Key markets include Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Turkey, Vietnam, and several countries in South America, from Lawson, op. cit. note 64.

68 Based on estimated 257 TWh of electricity production in a normal wind year, calculated using average capacity factors on-and offshore, and using Eurostat electricity consumption data for 2011, from EWEA, op. cit. note 16, p.3. Note that wind power accounted for about 7.2% of Europe's electricity output (of 3,270 TWh) in 2013, up from 6.2% in 2012 and 1.8% in 2004, per EurObserv'ER, op. cit. note 1, p.4. Wind's contribution to EU electricity demand is up from 6.3% at the end of 2011, and 4.8% at the end of 2009, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.22. Note that Portugal met more than 20% of its electricity demand with wind, and Ireland more than 16%, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1; Ireland's share was up from 12.7% in 2012, from EWEA, Wind in Power 2012 European Statistics (Brussels: February 2013).

69 In Spain, wind generated 20.9% versus nuclear's20.8%, according to an advance report from the system operator Red Eléctrica de España (REE), per Asociación Empresarial Eólica (AEE), "Spain Was in 2013 the First Country Where Wind Energy Was the First Source of Electricity for an Entire Year," press release (Madrid: 15 January 2014), http://www.aeeolica.org/en/new/spain-was-in-2013-the-first-country-where-wind-energy-was-the-first-source-of-electricity-for-an-entire-year/; this was up from 16.3% in 2012, per EWEA, op. cit. note 68. Denmark met 33.2% of electricity demand with wind power, based on 11.1 billion kWh of wind power generation in 2013 and 33.5 billion kWh of total electricity consumption, from Vittrup, op. cit. note 25; this was up from 30% in 2012, per GWEC, Global Wind Report - Annual Market Update 2012 (Brussels: April 2013), p.34.

70 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern had enough wind to meet 65.5% of its electricity demand, followed by Schleswig-Hostein (53%), Sachsen-Anhalt (51.2%), and Brandenburg (50.9%); the next state was Niedersachsen (26.2%), all from Ender, op. cit. note 21, p.42. Note that wind power supplied a bout 8% of Germany's net electricity consumption in 2013, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.52.

71 Figure of 3.5% of U.S.generation in 2012 from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), "Wind Industry Brings Almost 5,400 MW of Capacity Online in December 2012," www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly/update/?scr=email, viewed 25 April 2013; 2013 shares from AWEA, "American Wind Power Reaches Major Power Generation Milestones in 2013," press release (Washington, DC: 5 March 2014), http://www.awea.org/MediaCenter/pressrelease.aspx?ltemNumber=6184. States generating over 12% of their electricity from wind were Colorado (13.8%), Idaho (16.2%), Iowa (27.4%), Kansas (19.4%), Minnesota (15.7%), North Dakota (15.6%), Oklahoma (14.8%), Oregon (12.4%), and South Dakota (26%), from AWEA, "Wind Energy Generation Records," http://www.awea.org/generationrecords, viewed 6 March 2014. Wind generated 167,776 MWh of U.S.electricity during 2013, per AWEA, op. cit. note 36.

72 CEC, provided by Shi, op. cit. note 14.

73 The figure 2.9% is an estimate derived for Figure 3 in this report, and is based on end-2013 capacity. See Endnote 39 in Global Marketand Industry Overview section for sources and details. In addition, note that the figure of "at least 2.87%", or 662 TWh is considered a conservative estimate for 2014 based on existing wind capacity at end-2013, from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1, and is up from at least 2.6% in 2012, from Navigant's BTM Consult, World Market Update 2012 (Copenhagen: March 2013); wind power generated about 527 TWh in the end of 2012, up from 254 TWh in end of 2008, per IEA, op. cit. note 64, pp.9-10. Wind powerwas enough to meet an estimated 4% of world demand, or640 TWh, from WWEA, op. cit. note 1. Estimated wind shares depend on assumptions about global electricity demand.

74 Sawyer, op. cit. note 1.

75 Sawyer, op. cit. note 34; Australia, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, New Zealand, Turkey, and South Africa also from IEA, op. cit. note 64, p.14. Also, in Australia, unsubsidised renewable energy is now cheaper than electricity from new-build coal-and gas-fired power stations (including cost of emissions under new carbon pricing scheme), perBNEF, "Renewable energy now cheaper than newfossil fuels in Australia," 7 February 2013, http://about.bnef.com/2013/02/07/renewable-energy-now-cheaper-than-new-fossil-fuels-in-australia/; the best wind projects in India can generate powerand the same costs as coal-fired power plants and cheaper in some locations, per Ravi Kailas, CEO of India's third-largest wind farm developer, cited in Natalie Obiko Pearson, "Wind Installations 'Falling Off a Cliff' in India," Bloomberg, 26 November 2012, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/a rticle/2012/11/wind-installations-falling-off-a-cliff-in-india; cheaper in some locations from Greenko Group Pic, cited in Natalie Obiko Pearson, "In Parts of India, Wind Energy Proving CheaperThan Coal," Bloomberg, IS July 2012, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2012/07/in-parts-of-india-wind-energy-proving-cheaper-than-coal; a 2012 study concluded that, although wind power has higher upfront costs in EUR/MWh than natural gas, the net cost of wind is lower than that of combined-cycle gas turbines, per Ernst & Young, "Analysis of the value cre ation potential of wind energy policies," July 2012, http://www.ey.com; in Brazil, wind was excluded from the A-5 auction because it was too cheap; in the wind-only auction, the average contract price was USD 45/M Wh, from Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 28 August 2013; bid prices in South Africa's national tender in late 2013 were around USD 70/MWh, orabout30% below that of new coal plants under construction there with World Bank support, from Steve Sawyer, GWEC, personal communication with REN21, 13 November 2013 and 15 January 2014; many countries in the European Union from Stefan Gsanger, WWEA, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2014; United Statesfrom Michael Taylor, International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), personal communication with REN21, April 2013; several U.S.utilities signed contractsfor more wind capacity than previously planned because of low prices (as low as USD 25/MWh in some locations), from Christopher Martin, "US Wind Power Slumps in 2013 After Tax Credit Drives 2012 Boom," Bloomberg, 1 November 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/11/u-s-wind-power-slumps-in-2013-after-tax-credit-drives-2012-boom; James Montgomery, "Updated: Massachusetts Utilities Sign PPA for Wind Energy that is Cheaper than Coal," Renewable Energy World, 24 September 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/a rticle/2013/09/massachusetts-utilities-pool-for-cheaper-wind-energy-supply; utilities included American Electric Power's Public Service Company of Oklahoma, Xcel Energy, Detroit Edison, Austin Energy, Omaha Public Power District, from AWEA, "Wind Power'sGrowth Continues to Attract Investment, Benefit Consumers and Local Economies," press release (Washington, DC: 31 October 2013), http://www.awea.org/MediaCenter/pressrelease.aspx?ltemNumber=5775. See also Ryan Wiseret al., 2012 Wind Technologies Market Report (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy, August 2013), Executive Summary, http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/pdfs/2012_annual_wind_market_report.pdf. Investment costs for offshore wind remain two to three times higher than those for onshore wind, from IEA, op. cit. note 64, p.15.

76 Over the five-year period from Q2 2009 to Q1 2014, from Frankfurt School-UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance (FS-UNEP Centre) and BNEF, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2014 (Frankfurt: 2014), pp.36-37 Offshore costs have risen 41%/M Wh over this period as projects have moved to deeper water farther from shore, and pressure has increased on supply of installation vessels, cables, and other items. Note that, in the United States, onshore generating costs declined 43% between 2009 and 2012, per AWEA, AWEA U.S. Wind Industry Fourth Quarter 2013 Market Report, op. cit. note 38, p.4.

77 Li Yan, "China Wind Power 2013: Market Growth Stable, Faces Grid Shortage," ecns.cn, 18 October 2013, http://www.ecns.cn/2013/10-18/84917.shtml; EurObserv'ER, Wind Power Barometer (Paris: February 2013), p.61, http://www.energies-renouvelables.org/observ-er/stat_baro/observ/baro-jdel2.pdf; James Lawson, "Keeping Wind Competitive: Manufacturing Ups its Game," Renewable Energy World, March-April 2013, p.19; Christopher Martin, "Shale Gas Boom Leaves Wind Companies Seeking More Subsidy," Bloomberg.com, 7 April 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-04-06/shale-gas-boom-leaves-wind-companies-seeking-more-subsidy.html.

78 Bard from EurObserv'ER, op. cit. note 1, pp.9, 11; Fuhrländer from Gsänger, op. cit. note 75; Vestas from BNEF, "Vestas Sees Winds of Change, as UK Aims for Greener Biomass and California CO2 Sells Out," Energy Week in Review, 20-26 August 2013.

79 Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1.

80 Factory closures and layoffs from Wiser et al., op. cit. note 75; from Sawyer, op. cit. note 2; and from Jennifer Runyon, "Nordex Announces Closure of US Wind Power Manufacturing Plant," Renewable Energy World, 28June 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/06/nordex-announces-closure-of-us-wind-power-manufacturing-plant; ramped up from AWEA, "American Wind Power See Unprecedented Growth Entering 2014," press release (Washington, DC: 30 January 2014), http://www.awea.org/MediaCenter/pressrelease.aspx?ltemNumber=6044; manufacturing from Elizabeth Salerno, AWEA, "Fact Check: ER Finds it Hard to Kick Habit of Attacking Wind Power," Renewable Energy World, 9 December 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/12/fact-check-ier-finds-it-hard-to-kick-habit-of-attacking-wind-power.

81 Natalie Obiko Pearson, "India's Currency Plunge Derailing its $1.6 Billion Wind Industry," Bloomberg, 3 September 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/09/rupee-derailing-1-6-billion-india-wind-farm-revival; BNEF, "Europe Skirmishes With America on Airline Emissions, and With China on Solar," Energy: Week in Review, 18-24 September 2012; Natalie Obiko Pearson and Anurag Joshi, "Wind Turbine ManufacturerSuzlon to Default on Bond Debt," Bloomberg, 11 October 2012, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2012/10/wind-turbine-manufacturer-suzlon-set-to-default-on-bond-debt.

82 In Latin America, forexample, wind power projects are being delayed due to lack of grid infrastructure, from Gonzalo Bravo, Fundacion Bariloche, personal communication with REN21, 14 January 2014; grid connection remains a major challenge for offshore wind, particularly off Germany's coast, where 43% of the turbines installed in 2013 (or nearly 395 MW) lacked grid connection by year's end, from B. Neddermann, "German Offshore Market Growing Despite Problems with Grid Connection," DEWI Magazin, February 2014, p.55, http://www.dewi.de/dewi/fileadmin/pdf/publications/Magazin_44/09.pdf, and from Ender, op. cit. note 21, p.42; an issue formerly seen in the developing world/emerging markets of Latin America and China, is now seen in the established market of Germany, where electricity is re-routed through Poland and the Czech Republic, from Aris Karcanias, FTI Consulting, personal communication with REN21, 14 April 2014; curtailment and inability to integrate in several countries, including China and India, from Shukla, op. cit. note 19, and from Klaus Rave, GWEC Chairman, "Get Connected!" Editorial, in GWEC Newsletter, 12 November 2013, http://www.gwec.net/get-connected/

83 Oscar Fitch-Roy et al., Workers Wanted: The EU Wind Energy Sector Skills Gap (Brussels: European Wind Energy Technology Platform, August 2013), http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/files/library/publications/reports/Workers_Wanted_TPwind.pdf; Electricity Human Resources Canada, Renewing Futures: Powerful HR Solutions for the Renewable Energy Workforce, cited in Michael Copley, "Canada Faces Labor Shortfall for Renewable Energy Expansion, Report Finds," SNL Financial, 5 March 2014, http://www.snl.com/lnteractivex/article.aspx?Cdld=A-27145217-13868; Shukla, op. cit. note 19; Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1.Sidebar 6 and Table 1 based on the following sources: from IREN A, Renewable Energy and Jobs - Annual Review 2014 (Abu Dhabi: 2014), http://www.irena.org/Publications/rejobs-annual-review-2014.pdf; IRENA, Renewable Energy and Jobs (Abu Dhabi: 2013), http://www.irena.org/rejobs.pdf; Brazil from MTE/RAIS (Ministry of Labor and Employment/Annual Report of Social Information), "Annual List of Social Information Database: including active and inactive employments for sugarcane cultivation and alcohol manufacture," http://portal.mte.gov.br/rais/estatisticas.htm, viewed March 2014; U.K.from renewableUK, Working for a Green Britain and Northern Ireland 2013-23. Employment in the UK Wind & Marine Energy Industries (Solihull, U.K.: September, 2013), http://www.renewableuk.com/download.cfm/docid/82BF89A1-9EA2-4D77-8E9B1B986BE8B727; India from K. Ganesan et al., "IISD GSI Project: Assessing Green Industrial Policy – India Case Studies" (New Delhi: CEEW, forthcoming 2014).

84 IEA, op. cit. note 64, p.10; Japan from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1. China was home to 8 of the top 15 manufacturers, from idem.

85 IEA, op. cit. note 64, p.11. See also GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.40. Turbine manufacturers are located in many other countries as well. For example, in 2013 Argentinean firm IMPSA sold 574MW to the Brazilian market, from Gonzalo Bravo, Fundacion Bariloche, personal communication with REN21, 16 April 2014.

86 Figure of 70% from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1; 77% in 2012 from Navigant's BTM Consult, op. cit. note 73.

87 Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1. Other sources also put Vestas in the lead, but rank othercompanies differently. Make Consulting estimated the top 10 captured 68.4% of the market and puts Suzlon ahead of GE Wind and Gamesa, from Make Consulting, cited in North American Wind power, "Top 15 Wind Turbine Suppliers of 2013 Revealed," 11 March 2014, http://www.nawindpower.com/e107_plugins/content/ content.php?content.12710. GlobaIData ranks Enercon ahead of Goldwind, followed by Siemens and Suzlon to round out the top five, from "Vestas Wind Systems Blows into World-Leading Position for 2013 Wind Turbine Installations, says GlobaIData," GlobaIData.com, 12 March 2014, http://energy.globaldata.com/media-center/press-releases/power-and-resources/vestas-wind-systems-blows-into-worldleading-position-for-2013-wind-turbine-installations-says-globaldata.Figure 21 based on data from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1.

88 James Lawson, "Keeping Wind Competitive: Manufacturing Ups Its Game," Renewable Energy World, March-April 2013, p.19.

89 Aris Karcanias, BTM Consult, cited in James Lawson, "Keeping Wind Competitive: Manufacturing Ups its Game," Renewable Energy World, March-April 2013, p.19.

90 Jennifer Runyon, "Servicing the Wind Energy Sector is Big Business for Siemens," Renewable Energy World, 19 September 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/09/servicing-the-wind-energy-sector-is-big-business-for-siemens; Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1. See also, forexample, GE, "Wind Services," http://www.ge-energycom/products_and_services/services/wind_services/, viewed 3 March 2014; Gamesa, "Operation and Maintenance Services," http://www.gamesacorp.com/en/gamesaen/lines-of-business/operation-and-maintenance-services/, viewed 3 March 2014; Vestas, "Active Output Management," http://www.vestas.com/en/products_and_services/operation_and_maintenance#!, viewed 3 March 2014; increase value from Shukla, op. cit. note 19.

91 Mitsubishi, "MHI and Vestas Agree to Form Joint-Venture Company Dedicated to Offshore Wind Turbine Business," press release (Tokyo: 27 September 2013), http://www.mhi.co.jp/en/news/story/1309271718.html; Areva, "Offshore Wind: Areva Accelerates its Development by Creating a European Champion with Gamesa to Become a Leading Global Player," press release (Paris: 20 January 2014), http://www.areva.com/EN/news-10115/offshore-wind-areva-accelerates-its-development-by-creating-a-european-champion-with-gamesa-to-become-a-leading-global-player.html; Toray acquired Zolteck, a producer of carbon fibre for wind turbine blades, per GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.61.

92 Shukla, op. cit. note 19.

93 Lawson, op. cit. note 89.

94 David Appleyard, "New Turbine Technology: Key Players On- and Offshore," Renewable Energy World, 1 May 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/05/new-turbine-technology-the-future-is-larger-offshore; Siemens in the United Statesfrom Feng Zhao, Navigant Research-BTM, personal communication with REN21, 2 April 2014.

95 Appleyard, op. cit. note 94; James Montgomery, "Wind Energy 2014 Outlook: Major Markets Recover, Battling Policy and Grid Concerns," Renewable Energy World, January-February 2014, p.29; IEA, op. cit. note 64; Jeff Anthony, "Utilities' Appetite for Wind Energy Continues to Grow," Renew-grid.com, 10 June 2013, http://www.renew-grid.com/e107_plugins/content/content.php?content.9985; Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1.

96 IEA, op. cit. note 64, p.5; Wiser et al., op. cit. note 75; Valerie A. Hines, Alistair B. Ogilvie, and Cody R. Bond, Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) Database: Wind Plant Reliability Benchmark (Albuquerque, NM and Livermore, CA: Sandia National Laboratories, September 2013), p.12, http://energy.sandia.gov/wp/wp-content/gallery/uploads/CREW2013Benchmark-Report-SAND2013-72881.pdf.

97 James Montgomery, "GE Wants to 'Power Up' Older Wind Turbines," Renewable Energy World, 11 October 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/10/ge-wants-to-power-up-older-wind-turbines; Appleyard, op. cit. note 94. GE launched its services packages called PowerUp Software, similarto an earlier package named WindBoost, to improve the power output of each unit and the overall wind farm while introducing a 2.5 MW "brilliant" model to incorporate short-term battery storage as part of the complete turbine package, from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1.

98 The share of direct turbines rose from 12% in 2008 to 20% in 2012/13, per IEA, op. cit. note 64, p.12; their share was 28.1% of the global market in 2013, per Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1. Forexample, two-bladed turbines are new to the offshore market, with Aerodyn (Germany) introducing an innovative two-bladed down-wind machine and Envision (China) testing its two-bladed (3.6 MW) prototype in Denmark in 2013. Aerodyn from Eize de Vries, "Offshore Wind Turbine Vendors Unveil Next-Generation Wind Power Machines," Renewable Energy World, 10 December 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/12/offshore-wind-turbines-are-getting-bigger-all-the-time; Envision from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1.

99 Average size delivered to market (based on measured rated capacity) was 1,926 kW in 2012, up an average 79 kW over 2011, from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1.

100 Average sizes were 2.7 MW in Germany; 1,841 kWin the United States, 1,719 kW in China, and 1,336 kW in India, from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1; 2.6 MW in Germanyfrom Ender, op. cit. note 21, p.43, http://www.dewi.de/dewi/fileadmin/pdf/publications/Magazin_44/07.pdf; and from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.52.1,720 kW in China also from "Statistics of Wind Power Development in China 2013," op. cit. note 10, p.24.

101 Gsänger, op. cit. note 75.

102 The average size was about 4 MW, due to the dominance of Siemens' 3.6 MW machine, although larger turbines have been commercialised, from EWEA, op. cit. note 49, p.9. Note that the average size installed offshore fell from 3,793 kW in 2012 to 3,613 kW in 2013, per Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1. Samsung installed its 7 MW machine, the largest operating offshore by late 2013, near Fife, Scotland, from Jim Bell, "Securing the World's Largest Turbine," Renewable Energy World, 1 October 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/10/securing-the-worlds-largest-wind-turbine. The average size of turbines installed in Germany's offshore wind farms during 2013 was 4.2 MW (4,158 kW), per Ender, op. cit. note 21, p.43; and it was 5 MW, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.56.

103 European manufacturers testing new turbines include Areva (France), Vestas (Denmark), and Siemens (Germany), from David Appleyard, "A Window on the Future of Offshore Wind Turbines," Renewable Energy World, 21 June 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/06/a-window-on-the-future-of-offshore-wind-turbines; Eize de Vries, "Offshore Wind Turbine Vendors Unveil Next-Generation Wind Power Machines," Renewable Energy World, 10 December 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/12/offshore-wind-turbines-are-getting-bigger-all-the-time; Vestas began testing the world's most powerful wind turbine (V164-8.0 MW) at the Østerild Test Centre in Denmark, from GWEC, op. cit. note 1, p.46; China's Sinovel received a grant of USD 6.6 million (RMB 42 million) from China's National Development and Reform Commission to develop a 10 MW turbine, and Goldwind and Guodian United Power are also competing to develop a 10 MW machine, from Appleyard, op. cit. note 94; China also from James Quilter, "Ming Yang Working on 12 MW Offshore Turbine," Wind Power Monthly, 11 July 2013, http://www.windpowermonthly.com/article/1190352/ming-yang-working-12mw-offshore-turbine.

104 EWEA, op. cit. note 49, p.9.

105 Foundation types include Spar Buoy, Tension Leg Platform, and Semi-submersible, from David Appleyard, "Floating Offshore Wind Power Taking Hold," Renewable Energy World, 7 October 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/10/floating-offshore-wind-power-taking-hold.

106 Japan launched a 2 MW turbine in October, and another off the coast of Fukushima in November 2013, goal from Nobuteru shihara, Japan's Minister of Environment, cited in "Another Floating Offshore Wind Project Online in Japan This Week," GWEC Newsletter, 12 November 2013, http://www.gwec.net/japans-floating-wind-turbines/; Hiroko Tabuchi, "To Expand Offshore Power, Japan Builds Floating Windmills," New York Times, 24 October 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/25/business/international/to-expand-offshore-power-japan-builds-floating-windmills.html?_r=0; leasing in the United Kingdom from Appleyard, op. cit. note 105. Othercountries experimenting with floating turbines include Norway and Portugal, from idem. In addition, the first offshore wind turbine deployed off the U.S.coast, was a 20 kW floating turbine anchored off the coast of Maine in mid-2013, from James Montgomery, "First US Offshore Wind Turbine Launches in Maine," Renewable Energy World, 31 May 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/05/first-us-offshore-wind-turbine-launches-in-maine.

107 Tabuchi, op. cit. note 106; Kari Lundgren, "Britain's Forgotten Ports Put Wind in Goldman's Sails: Freight," Bloomberg, 2 May 2013, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-05-01/britain-s-forgotten-ports-put-wind-in-goldman-s-sails-freight.html.

108 UK's Seajacks International joined with Samsung Heavy ndustries (Korea) to the build world's largest jack-up barge, from "Largest Offshore Wind Barge Under Construction," Renewables International, 12 June 2013, http://www.renewablesinternational.net/largest-offshore-wind-barge-under-construction/150/505/63296/; Tildy Bayar, "A Bigger Boat: Offshore Wind Service Vessels Grow Up," Renewable Energy World, 5 August 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/08/a-bigger-boat-offshore-wind-service-vessels-grow-up; David Appleyard, "New Offshore Jack-up Vessel Commissioned by Hochtief," Renewable Energy World, 13 December 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/12/new-offshore-jack-up-vessel-commissioned-by-hochtief; Philippa Jones, "Booming Boats," Wind Directions, September 2013, p.48; Chinese from Navigant Research, op. cit. note 1.

109 Tildy Bayar, "Subsea Cables Bring Offshore Wind Powerto the People," Renewable Energy World, 19 December 2013, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/12/subsea-cables-bring-offshore-wind-power-to-the-people.

110 Offshore wind power costs rose 41%/MWh from the second quarter of 2009 till the first quarter of 2014, as projects moved to deeperwaterfartherfrom shore, from FS-UNEP Centre and BNEF, op. cit. note 76, p.37

111 Based on USD 4.7 million/MW (EUR 3.4 million/MW) of installed capacity and operational costs of USD 259 million/kW(EUR 187/kW), from Aris Karcanias and Athanasia Arapogianni, Innovative Financing of Offshore Wind (London: FTI Consulting, April 2014).

112 Pike Research, "Small Wind Power," http://www.pikeresearch.com/research/small-wind-power, viewed March 2013. By the end of 2011, more than 330 manufacturers around the world offered commercial systems, and more than 300 companies supplied parts and services, per Gsangerand Pitteloud, op. cit. note 60.

113 Gsänger and Pitteloud, op. cit. note 60. In 2013, for exam pie, the United Kingdom had more than 10 manufacturers of wind turbines ranging in size from several hundred watts to 60 kW, from RenewableUK, op. cit. note 58.

114 As of 2011, 74% of commercialised one-piece small-scale wind manufacturers produced horizontal axis machines, 18% focused on vertical, and 6% on both, from Gsänger and Pitteloud, op. cit. note 60.

115 Table 2 derived from the sources outlined in this endnote. Note that all IRENA data are exclusive of subsidies, based on an assumed 7% weighted average cost of capital, derived from actual project data, with O&M costs sourced from International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012: An Overview (Abu Dhabi: 2013), http://costing.rena.org/media/2769/0verview_Renewable-Power-Generation-Costs-in-2012.pdf.